and challenge of the Qur'an
e shall show them Our signs on the
horizons and within themselves until it will become clear to
them that it is the Truth. Does it not suffice that your Lord is
Witness over all things?"
The noble Qur'an, Fussilat(41):53.
Muslims are taught that throughout the ages,
Allah Almighty has sent a prophet to every nation as a warner
and a bearer of glad tidings.
"Verily! We have sent you (O Muhammad) with
the Truth, a bearer of glad tidings and a warner; and there is
not a nation but a warner has passed among them,"
The noble Qur'an, Fatir(35):24.
Each prophet was wisely selected by Allah in
order to be the best person for the job. He was then provided by
Allah with miracles as proof of his truthfulness and his
message. These miracles were wisely selected by Allah in order
to be in the same field as that which these people excelled in
so that they could fully comprehend the magnitude of these
For instance, the people during the time of
Moses excelled at magical trickery. Their rulers
used to surround themselves with the most powerful of these
wizards as a sign of power. This is why Allah made the miracles
of Moses (pbuh) similar to their magical trickery (changing a
stick into a snake, parting of the sea... etc.) but of a much
greater magnitude than anything they could ever hope to
accomplish. For they were not tricks, but actual physical
The people at the time of the prophet Jesus (pbuh)
excelled in matters of medicine. For this reason, his miracles
were of a medical nature (raising of the dead, healing of the
blind...etc.), but of a degree that they could never hope to
imitate. Similarly, one of the major miracles of Islam was a new
and unheard-of type of literature similar to the Bedouin's
poetry but far beyond anything they could ever hope
to match. Although they did indeed try. This new literature was
called "The Qur'an.
The Arabic language, as can be attested to by
any of it's scholars, is a very rich and powerful language. The
Bedouin people of the Arabian desert were, in general,
illiterate people of very little scientific knowledge. The thing
that set them apart, however, was their mastery of poetry.
Spending their days as they did in the desert watching their
sheep graze got quite boring. They alleviated their boredom by
continually composing and refining poetry. They would spend
entire years composing and refining their poetry in anticipation
of a yearly face-down of the poetic compositions of their peers
from all over the country. The fact that they were illiterate
forced them to also train themselves in the memorization of
works of literature to such an extent that they were able to
memorize complete works from a single recitation. Even in
matters of leadership, one of the major criteria for selecting
the leaders of the various Bedouin tribes was the individual's
prowess in literary composition and memorization.
The Arabian Bedouins took great pains to make
their poetry as compact and picturesque as humanly
possible, constantly expanding the language along the way. A
single word could convey complete pictures. The Qur'an, however,
has put even these great efforts to shame. You will notice that
when a Muslim translates a verse of the Qur'an he usually does
not say "the Qur'an says so and so" but rather "An approximation
of the meaning of what the Qur'an says is so and so." You really
need to know the language to comprehend this.
In the English language, we find that the
words: "mustang," "colt," "mare," "pony," "stallion,"
"bronco"... etc. all refer to the same thing; a horse. Each one
of these words conveys a slightly different mental picture. The
mental picture we get when we hear the word "colt" is slightly
different than the picture we get if we hear the word "mare." In
a similar manner, the Arabic language progressed in such a
fashion as to make it possible to convey such mental pictures in
as concise and picturesque a format as possible. It is not at
all uncommon to find over three hundred words that refer to the
same thing in the Arabic language. Each one of these words gives
a slightly different picture than the others.
Many centuries of this constant refinement
eventually lead to a very complex and rich vocabulary, and the
primary miracle of Muhammad (pbuh), the Qur'an, was in exactly
In the noble Qur'an we find a challenge from
Allah to compose a literary work on a par with this Qur'an it is
indeed the work of mankind. They could not. The Qur'an continued
to reduce it's challenge until the challenge finally became:
"compose only a single verse comparable to this Qur'an and you
will have won." They still could not. This in addition to the
fairness, justice, and logic of the Qur'an eventually won them
over and slowly more and more people became Muslims.
"Well then, if the Koran were his own
[Muhammad's] composition other men could rival it. Let them
produce ten verses like it. If they could not (and it is obvious
that they could not), then let them accept the Koran as an
outstanding evidential miracle"
Mohammedanism, H. A. R. Gibb, Oxford
University Press, p. 42
"From the literary point of view, the Koran
is regarded as a specimen of purest Arabic, written in half
poetry, half prose. It has been said that in some cases
grammarians have adopted their rules to agree with certain
expressions used in it, and though several attempts have been
made to produce a work equal to it as far as elegant writing is
concerned, none yet has succeeded"
Glimpses of the Noble Qur'an, Muhammad
Azizullah, Crescent Publications, pp. 104-105
"In making the present attempt to improve
on the performance of my predecessors, and to produce something
which might be accepted as echoing however faintly the sublime
rhetoric of the Arabic Koran, I have been at pains to study the
intricate and richly varied rhythms which - apart from the
message itself - constitute the Koran's undeniable claim to rank
amongst the greatest literary masterpieces of mankind... This
very characteristic feature - 'that inimitable symphony,' as the
believing Pickthall described his Holy Book, 'the very sounds of
which move men to tears and ecstasy' - has been almost totally
ignored by previous translators; it is therefore not surprising
that what they have wrought sounds dull and flat indeed in
comparison with the splendidly decorated original."
The Koran Interpreted, Arthur J. Arberry,
Oxford University Press, 1964, p. x.
"The Koran admittedly occupies an important
position among the great religious books of the world. Though
the youngest of the epoch-making works belonging to this class
of literature, it yields to hardly any in the wonderful effect
which it has produced on large masses of men. It has created an
all but new phase of human thought and a fresh type of
character. It first transformed a number of heterogeneous desert
tribes of the Arabian peninsula into a nation of heroes, and
then proceeded to create the vast politico-religious
organizations of the Muhammadan world which are one of the great
forces with which Europe and the East have to reckon today."
G. Margoliouth, Introduction to J.M. Rodwell's,
The Koran, New York: Everyman's Library, 1977, p. vii.
"A work, then, which calls forth so
powerful and seemingly incompatible emotions even in the distant
reader - distant as to time, and still more so as a mental
development - a work which not only conquers the repugnance
which he may begin its perusal, but changes this adverse feeling
into astonishment and admiration, such a work must be a
wonderful production of the human mind indeed and a problem of
the highest interest to every thoughtful observer of the
destinies of mankind � Here, therefore, its merits as a literary
production should perhaps not be measured by some preconceived
maxims of subjective and aesthetic taste, but by the effects
which it produced in Muhammad's contemporaries and fellow
countrymen. If it spoke so powerfully and convincingly to the
hearts of his hearers as to weld hitherto centrifugal and
antagonistic elements into one compact and well-organized body,
animated by ideas far beyond those which had until now ruled the
Arabian mind, then its eloquence was perfect, simply because it
created a civilized nation out of savage tribes, and shot a
fresh woof into the old warp of history."
Dr. Steingass, quoted in T.P. Hughes'
Dictionary Of Islam, p. 526-528.
Many claims have been made against Muhammad in
that day and this. Among them are the claims that he was a
lunatic, a liar, or deceived by the devil. If Muhammad was a
lunatic or a liar then we have to wonder how all of his
prophesies came true?. Further, if he was a deceived by Satan
then we are faced with another problem. For we know that all
Muslims are taught that when reading the Qur'an they must first
begin with the words "I seek refuge in Allah from Satan the
stoned* one." and then follow this up with
the words "In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most
Merciful" So we have to wonder if Satan would "inspire" a
man to teach mankind to seek refuge in God from Satan? Indeed
this is the exact same accusation which was made against Jesus (pbuh).
Let us read how Jesus responded to this claim:
"But some of them (the Jews) said, He
(Jesus) casteth out devils through Beelzebub (Satan) the chief
of the devils. And others, tempting [him], sought of him a sign
from heaven. But he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them,
Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation;
and a house [divided] against a house falleth. If Satan also be
divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye
say that I cast out devils through Beelzebub."
It has been the case throughout the ages that
with all previous prophets, their miracle was separate from
their book. Although we may claim that we have the "Torah" of
Moses, still, it is not possible now to bring Moses'
(pbuh) staff and see it perform miracles as it did in his time.
Similarly it is not possible today to see Jesus (pbuh) raise the
dead as he did so many centuries ago. However, since the message
of Islam was the final message of God to mankind, therefore, the
book of Islam itself was made the main miracle of Islam and it
has continued to renew it's challenge to mankind throughout the
What does this mean? Nowadays, the number of
people who can appreciate the literary content of the Qur'an has
dwindled and this challenge no longer has the same impact it did
fourteen hundred years ago. However, as we have seen in the
verse quoted at the beginning of this chapter, Allah Almighty
has promised to continually renew the challenge of the Qur'an
throughout the ages. So how will it be renewed?
Recently, a new field of study has opened up
to scholars. People nowadays are fascinated with science. This
is the age of technology and scientific discovery. For this
reason, mankind has begun to study the religious scriptures of
mankind from a scientific point of view in order to challenge
the scientific claims made in these scriptures. Many works have
been published on this topic. In this chapter I will give a
brief taste of these matters and then leave it up to the
interested reader to learn more from any one of the many books
which have been published in this regard (see list at back of
As mentioned previously, Muhammad (pbuh) lived
among tribes of people who were for the most part illiterate. He
himself was also illiterate. These people used to live extremely
simple lives. Some were traders and businessmen, others were
farmers, and yet others were nomadic sheepherders who traveled
from place to place depending on where they could find grass for
their sheep to graze. When Muhammad (pbuh) brought them the
Qur'an, the believers found in the Qur'an the command to go out,
seek knowledge, and confirm the presence of their Creator by
studying His creation. Muslims began to fulfill this command of
the Qur'an and this resulted in one of the greatest explosions
of scientific advancement mankind has ever seen. All of this was
going on during a period that the West calls "The Dark Ages,"
wherein the scientists of the West were being persecuted and
killed as sorcerers and wizards. During this period, Muslims
scholars introduced into the world such things as:
* Mathematical evolution of spherical mirrors
* Rectilinear motion of light and use of
* Refraction angle variations
* Magnifying effects of the plano convex lens
* Introduced the concept of the elliptical
shape of cosmological bodies
* Study of the center of gravity as applied to
* Measurement of specific weights of bodies
* Rule of algebraic equations
* Solutions to quadratic and cubic equations
* Work on square roots, squares, theory of
numbers, solution of the fractional numbers
* Solutions of equations of cubic order
* Wrote on conic geometry elaborating the
solution of algebraic equations
* Determined the Trinomial Equation
* Avicenna's "Canon of Medicine." He is know
as the Prince of Physicians to the West
* Wrote the first description of several drugs
and diseases as meningitis.
* Treatment of physiological shocks
* Expertise in psychosomatic medicine and
* Al-Biruni mentions fifty six manuscripts on
* Credited for identifying small pox and its
* Use of alcohol as an antiseptic
* Use of mercury as a purgative for the first
* First to describe the circulation of blood.
* "Holy Abbas" was, after Rhazes, the most
outstanding Physician. His works were authoritative till the
works of ibn Sina appeared
* Writings on Cosmology, Astrology, Science of
numbers and letters
* Proved that the earth is smaller than the
sun but larger than the moon.
* Final authorities on Chemistry for many
* Classified metals into three classifications
* Laid the basis of the Acid Base theory
* Distillation, calcination, crystallization,
the discovery of many acids
* Cultivation of Gold - is a continuation of
* Theory of Oscillatory motion of equinoxes
* Addition of ninth sphere to the eight
* Discovered the increase of the suns apogee
* Gravitational force
* Responsible for the discovery motion of the
* wrote ' On the Science of Stars '
* Determination of latitudes and longitudes
* Determination of geodetic measurements
* Described the motion of the planets
* Solved the problems of spherical
* First to study the isometric oscillatory
motion of a pendulum
* Invented the instrument ' Sahifah "
* Responsible for the proof of the motion of
the apogee of the sun with respect to the fixed stars.
* authorities on the theory of the system of
* Prepared a calendar that was more accurate
than the Gregorian one in use today.
...............and much, much more.
All of this began with a single illiterate
Arab from the desert fourteen hundred years ago. The book that
was brought into the world by such a man cries out to be studied
from a scientific aspect. We will now give you a glimpse of the
"So ask the People of Knowledge if you do
The Qur'an, Al-Anbia(21):7
Example Number 1: Embryology:
Dr. Keith L. Moore
is a Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of
Toronto, Toronto, Canada. He is a world renowned scientist and a
distinguished researcher in the fields of anatomy and
embryology, he has published more than 150 research articles,
chapters and books in this field. He is the author of several
medical textbooks, such as the widely used and acclaimed "The
Developing Human: Clinically oriented Embryology"
(now in it's fifth edition, and translated into eight different
languages), "Before We Are Born" and "Clinically Oriented
Anatomy." He has also recently co-authored "Qur'an and Modern
Science, Correlation Studies." Dr. Moore is the recipient of
numerous awards and honors, including, in 1984, the J.C.B. Grant
Award, which is the highest honor granted by the Canadian
Association of Anatomists. He has served in many academic and
administrative positions, including the President of the
Canadian Association of Anatomists, 1968-1970. Let us see what
Dr. Moore's opinion is on the scientific statements regarding
embryology to be found in the Qur'an:
Dr. Moore was contacted by a Muslim scholar by
the name of Abdul-Majeed Azzindani. He was asked to participate
in a three-year study of around twenty-five verses of the Qur'an
and the Sunnah (sayings of Muhammad, pbuh) which speak about
embryology, and to determine the their correspondence to modern
scientific discoveries. Dr. Moore's conclusion regarding this
Fig. 12 The human fetus in various stages
development, at six, eight and 14 weeks
"For the past three years, I have worked
with the Embryology Committee of King Abdulaziz University in
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, helping them to interpret the many
statements in the Qur'an and the Sunnah referring to human
reproduction and prenatal development. At first I was astonished
by the accuracy of the statements that were recorded in the
seventh century AD, before the science of embryology was
established. Although I was aware of the glorious history of
Muslim scientists in the 10th century AD, and of some of their
contributions to Medicine, I new nothing about the religious
facts and beliefs contained in the Qur'an and Sunnah. It is
important for Islamic and other students to understand the
meaning of these Qur'anic statements about human development,
based on current scientific knowledge. The interpretations of
the "verses" in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, translated by Shaikh
Azzindani, are to the best of my knowledge accurate."
From the forward of "The Developing Human:
Clinically oriented Embryology," third edition, by Dr. Keith L.
The Qur'an and the Sunnah of the prophet
Muhammad (pbuh) provide a very detailed description of the
microscopic development of the human embryo from a mere sperm
drop up to the stage of a completely formed human being. It is
well known that microscopes were not developed until the
sixteenth century AD, and even at that were very crude in
design. Zacharias Janssen is credited with having invented the
compound microscope in about 1590. With it, remarkable
scientific discoveries were made in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Dutch naturalist Anthony van Leeuwenhoek produced lenses
powerful enough to prove that many tiny creatures are not
spontaneously generated but come from eggs.
Before this period, theories on human
reproduction ran rampant. Some scientist believed that the
menstrual blood itself developed into the fetus. Later on, a new
theory was developed wherein the sperm drop was popularly
believed to contain a completely developed miniature human
(homunculus) which later grew to the size of a baby. The science
of embryology as we know it today did not discover many of the
detailed aspects of human development which are taken for
granted today until only about twenty years ago, or 1973 to be
Now we must ask the question: where did
Muhammad (pbuh) get such detailed knowledge of the microscopic
development of the human embryo in the 6th century AD without a
microscope, technical training, a laboratory of any kind, or
even the ability to write his own name? The only logical
conclusion is that it came from exactly where he claimed it did.
From the one who created mankind, God Almighty!
Prof. Moore has since given numerous lectures
on the topic of embryology in the Qur'an. He is quoted in one of
these lectures as saying:
"It is clear to me that these statements
must have come to Muhammad from God, or Allah, because most of
this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later.
This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of
God, or Allah."
Prof. Moore was so impressed with the Qur'anic
classification of the stages of development of the human embryo,
that he suggested the adoption of the Qur'anic system in place
of the system currently in use by scientists today. Prof. Moore
"Because the staging of the human embryo is
complex owing to the continuous process of change during
development. It is therefore suggested that a new system of
classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in
the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The proposed system is simple,
comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological
When Dr. Moore first presented his findings in
Toronto it caused quite a stir throughout Canada. It was on the
front pages of some of the newspapers across Canada. One
newspaper reporter asked Professor Moore,
"Don't you think That maybe the Arabs might
have known about these things - the description of the embryo,
its appearance and how it changes and grows? Maybe there were
not scientists, but maybe they did some crude dissections on
their own - carved up people and examined these things."
Professor Morre immediately pointed out to
him, however, that he had missed a very important point. All of
the slides of the embryo that Dr. Moore had based his study upon
had come from pictures taken through a microscope. He said,
"It does not matter if someone had tried to
discover embryology fourteen centuries ago, they could not have
seen it!." Dr. Moore taunted,
"Maybe fourteen centuries ago someone secretly had a microscope
and did this research, making no mistakes anywhere. Then he
somehow taught Muhammad and convinced him to put this
information in his book. Then he destroyed his equipment and
kept it a secret forever?. Do you believe that? You really
should not unless you bring some proof because it is such a
When he was asked "How do you explain this
information in the Qur'an?" Dr. Moore's reply was, "It
could only have been divinely revealed."
Example Number 2: The Universe:
Another example of such scientifically
accurate statements in the Qur'an can be found in the following
"And the firmament(sky) We constructed with
power and skill and verily We are expanding it"
The noble Qur'an, Al-Thariyaat(51):47.
(Remember: "we" is the Arabic plural of
respect, not the Christian plural of
"Trinity," as seen in chapter 14).
"Do not the disbelievers see that the
heavens and the earth were fused then We ripped them asunder,
and We created from water every living thing, do they not
The noble Qur'an, Al-Anbia(21):30.
"Then He settled/equilibrated unto the
firmament(sky) when it was smoke and said unto it and to the
earth: come willingly or unwillingly. They said: we come
The noble Qur'an, Fussilat(41):11.
Allah Almighty has in these three concise
verses answered questions that it has taken some of the greatest
physicists and astronomers of history centuries to answer. It
was only in this century that they finally found the truth.
Mankind has studied the heavens and the earth
for countless centuries. The Greeks were some of the first
people to attempt to describe various cosmological phenomena.
They gave us many of the very first theories regarding the
universe and it's composition. The major
contribution came with the writings of Plato. Plato
claimed that the universe was created by what he called "The
Demiurge." According to Plato, the universe was the result of
reasoning and planning, it was constructed by the Demiurge upon
precise mathematical and geometrical principles. Later on,
Aristotle, Plato's student, adopted his teacher's basic concept.
Aristotelian cosmology was based on the concept of an enclosed
cosmos comprising a series of concentric, spheres revolving
around a stationary Earth. Motion was provided by the "prime
mover" and, once initiated, would remain circular, uniform
Both Plato and Aristotle taught
that the universe was eternal, with neither
beginning nor end. The universe as a whole was considered steady
and unmoving, and this was the basis for the later formation of
the "steady state theory." In 1915, Albert Einstein had
published the famous general theory of relativity. Soon
afterward he proposed a static model of the universe, but he
would later declare that it was "one of the greatest mistakes
of my career." Why?, Because in 1925, Edwin Hubble (after
whom the Hubble Space telescope is named) provided the
observational evidence for the expansion of the universe, or as
Stephen Hawking put it "The universe is not static, as had
previously been thought, it was expanding."
Although mankind did not discover these facts
till this 20th Century, still, we find that Allah Almighty had
provided the answers for mankind 1400 years ago in the Qur'an
through the agency of His illiterate Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
During Muhammad's (pbuh) time, the Greeks were claiming that the
cosmos was static and not expanding. So how did he know that the
universe was expanding 1300 years before the
foremost scientist of the West proved this to be a scientific
However, this is not the only claim that the
Qur'an makes with regard to the universe. Let us
study the next two verses:
At the present time, the Big Bang theory of
the origin of the universe is the cosmological
model most widely accepted by astronomers. It holds that about
20,000,000,000 years ago the universe began with the explosive
expansion of a single, extremely condensed state of matter ("the
heavens and the earth were fused then we ripped them asunder").
As mentioned above, a further development of this model, known
as "inflationary theory," describes the original
condensed matter as arising from virtually empty space. It was
only after the development of radio telescopes in 1937 AD that
the necessary observational precision was achieved in order for
astronomers to arrive at the above conclusion. Out of the
observations of such scientists has arisen the so called "Hubble
Constant" (Ho) which is quantity currently used to gauge the
rate at which the universe is expanding. In other words, the
issue is no longer whether the universe is expanding or not,
rather, it is only a question of how fast it is
The second and third verses presented appear
to claim that the heavens and the earth were once a single mass
then were "ripped asunder," The exact root words used in the
Qur'an are the words "ra-ta-qa" and "fa-ta-qa," or "the
heavens and the earth were 'ra-ta-qa' then we 'fa-ta-qa' them"
"Ra-ta-qa" is an
Arabic word which has the general meaning of "to fuse, to sew,
to mend, to patch up, to repair." ("Lisan Al-Arab," by Ibn
Mandoor, Vol. 10, Dar Al-Fikr, p. 114, and also "A Dictionary of
Modern Written Arabic," Hans Wehr, Librairie du Liban, p. 325)
Similarly, "fa-ta-qa" has the general
meaning of "To rip, to undo sewing, to unstitch, to tear apart,
to rend, to rip open." ("Lisan Al-Arab," by Ibn Mandoor, Vol.
10, Dar Al-Fikr, p. 296, and also "A Dictionary of Modern
Written Arabic," Hans Wehr, Librairie du Liban, p. 695)
The verse then goes on to say that Allah
Almighty created the heavens and the earth from a celestial
"smoke." Astronomers today have pictures of galaxies being
formed by exactly this process, i.e. the condensation of
spiraling celestial "mists." Isn't it an incredible coincidence
that an illiterate man from the desert, without the aid of
observatories or satellite imaging was making these claims over
1400 years ago?. Was he just guessing?
Further, the cosmic phenomenon depicted in the
following two figures is commonly referred to by astronomists as
a cosmic "mist." However, if we were to read the second verse of
the Qur'an presented above we will find that the Qur'an more
accurately refers to it as a "smoke." This is because "mist"
implies a cool and tranquil spray of water. However, "smoke"
implies a hot gas containing airborne particles. This is indeed
another example of the literary miracle of the Qur'an in that it
manages to convey to us in a very concise language a very
accurate and detailed description of the topic at hand.
Fig. 13 The Spiral Galaxy M100 courtesy of
the Hubble Space Telescope
Fig. 14 M100 again. The distance to the
swirling grand design spiral M100 is causing quite a stir among
astronomers. Many believe that the Hubble Space Telescope's
recent distance measurement to this galaxy accurately calibrates
the "Hubble's constant." A scientific debate involving the
actual value of Hubble's constant titled "The Scale of the
Universe" is scheduled to occur in April 1996 in Washington, DC.
"And those who have been given knowledge
know that that which has been revealed to you from your Lord is
The noble Qur'an, Saba(34):6
"Do they not consider the Qur'an (with
care) or are there locks upon their hearts?"
The noble Qur'an, Muhammad(47):24
Example Number 3: Water and Life:
In the Qur'an we read:
"Do not the disbelievers see that the
heavens and the earth were joined together then we split them
asunder, and we created from water every living thing, do they
The noble Qur'an, Al-Anbia(21):30.
"And Allah has created every trodding
creature from water......"
The noble Qur'an, Al-Noor(24):45.
"It is He who created from water a
The noble Qur'an, Al-Furqan(25):54.
Water is the most common substance on Earth,
covering more than 70% of the planet's surface. All living
things consist mostly of water; for example, the human body is
about two-thirds water (when you cremate a human what happens to
him? Why?). Scientist tell us that all forms of life known to
humanity today require three basic conditions: Temperature, the
existence of water, and the existence of an atmosphere.
All metabolisms require water to survive, so
animals that exist in arid regions have body mechanisms that
protect against water loss and make maximum use of water (camels
for example). Dehydration in humans results from lack of food,
drink, and from sweating, in addition to other factors. This
loss eventually affects the proper functioning of the heart,
central nervous system, and organs containing smooth muscle.
Finally, intercellular water is lost, which upsets vital
chemical processes in the cells. If water is not restored to the
body, death will usually occur within a few days.
The blood of all living creatures is composed
of 55 percent plasma, which in turn is composed of more than 90
percent water. Jan Baptista van Helmont, the first experimental
physiologist, around 1640 AD concluded that water is the only
soil component required for plant growth. We could go on and on.
Again we find ourselves asking the question: How did Muhammad (pbuh)
know that all living creatures are created from water centuries
before mankind discovered this fact through scientific
experimentation? Did he randomly select an element from the
countless billions of possible choices? Why did he not claim
that mankind was created from air, or from wood, or from light?
Example Number 4: Deep sea currents:
In the Qur'an we read:
"Or as darkness on a vast, abysmal sea.
There covers it a wave, above which is a wave, above which is a
cloud. Layer upon layer of darkness."
The noble Qur'an, Al-Noor(24):40.
Mankind began to build submersibles in the
seventeenth century. The first crude craft known to have
ventured underwater was built by Cornelis Drebbel, court
engineer to James I of England, and was demonstrated on the
Thames river in 1620. From then onwards, development of
submarines continued until the twentieth century, or 1954 to be
exact, when the first nuclear submarine became a reality. With
mankind's study of the sea came the realization that the waters
lying underneath the surface waves were not the place of
tranquil calmness they were previously envisioned to be. Rather,
there were underwater currents called deep sea currents which
could at times become such violent storms as to rearrange
sediments in the ocean bottom. How did Muhammad (pbuh) know
about these underwater currents centuries before mankind
invented the tools necessary for underwater exploration?
"Say: It was sent down by He who knows the
secrets in the heavens and the earth."
The noble Qur'an, Al-Furqaan(25):6.
It is worth mentioning here in connection with
the above verse that some scientists have interpreted the
"layer upon layer of darkness" to be the gradual separation
of the light spectrum within the ocean, one color at a time
until complete darkness is finally achieved. In other words, at
one depth, the yellow bandwidth is suppressed and "yellow
darkness" is achieved. At another depth, the red bandwidth is
suppressed and "red darkness" is achieved, and so forth.
There are many other scientific statements
made in the Qur'an which were only discovered to be
scientifically accurate many centuries after Muhammad's death.
Many of them have only been discovered in this century. They
range over many fields of science including Anatomy, Chemistry,
Astronomy, Geology, Hydrology, and many other disciplines which
are only beginning to be addressed by scientists today.
For example, the Qur'an makes reference to the
fact that a human's pain receptors are located in the skin
(Al-Nissa(4):56). That the frontal lobes of the brain are
responsible for lying and sin (Al-Alak(96):16). That mountains
have below them roots that extend deep into the earth's surface
(Al-Naba(78):7). That mountains pin the earth's crust and
prevent it from moving (Al-Nahil(16):15). That there exists a
physical barrier between bodies of fresh and salt water (Al-Rahman (55):20). There is also information regarding the formation of
milk in cows (Al-Nahi(16):66). And on and on. So where was
Muhammad (pbuh) getting all of these scientific facts if not
from the Creator of mankind and the universe?
Allah Almighty askes:
"Is this sorcery or is it that you do not
The noble Qur'an, Al-Tur (52):15.
Prof. Keith Moore is not the only scholar who
has been presented with such verses of the Qur'an. Many other
scholars from all over the world have been presented with
similar statements from the Qur'an in their field of expertise.
Only a few of these people are:
1) Dr. E. Marshall Johnson, Professor and
Chairman of the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology,
and the Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute, Thomas Jefferson
University, Philadelphia, USA. Author of over 200 publications.
Former President of the Teratology Society among other
accomplishments. After studying the verses of the Qur'an he came
to the following conclusion:
"The Qur'an describes not only the
development of external form but emphasizes also the internal
stages - the stages inside the embryo of its creation and
development, emphasizing major events recognized by contemporary
science... If I was to transpose myself into that era, knowing
what I do today and describing things, I could not describe the
things that were described... I see no evidence to refute the
concept that this individual Muhammad had to be developing this
information from some place... so I see nothing in conflict with
the concept that divine intervention was involved..."
2) Dr. Joe Leigh Simpson. Professor and
Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at
Baylor Collage of Medicine, Houston, Texas. He is the President
of the American Fertility Society, and has served in many other
professional, national, and international organizations. He has
received numerous awards including Association of Professors of
Obstetrics and Gynecology Public Recognition Award in 1992. He
has published more than 400 chapters and articles in journals
and books. He says:
"... these Hadeeths (sayings of Muhammad)
could not have been obtained on the basis of the scientific
knowledge that was available at the time of the writer'... It
follows that not only is there no conflict between genetics and
religion (Islam) but in fact religion (Islam) may guide science
by adding revelation to some of the traditional scientific
approaches... There exist statements in the Qur'an shown
centuries later to be valid which support knowledge in the
Qur'an having been derived from God."
3) Dr. T.V.N. Persaud. Professor and Head of
the Department of Anatomy, Professor of Pediatrics and Child
Health, and Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and
Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg,
Manitoba, Canada. He is the author and editor of 25 books, has
contributed 31 chapters to publications, and has published over
180 scientific papers. In 1991 he received the most
distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada,
the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of
Anatomists. He says:
"Muhammad was a very ordinary man, he
couldn't read, didn't know how to write, in fact he was an
illiterate... were talking about 1400 years ago, you have some
illiterate person making profound statements that are amazingly
accurate, of a scientific nature... I personally can't see how
this could be mere chance, there are too many accuracies and
like Dr. Moore, I have no difficulty in my mind reconciling that
this is a divine inspiration or revelation which lead him to
4) After a study which lasted ten years, the
famous French physician Maurice Bucaille addressed the French
Academy of Medicine in 1976 and expressed the complete agreement
of the Qur'an and established findings of modern science. He
presented his study on the existence in the Qur'an of certain
statements concerning physiology and reproduction. His reason
for doing that was that
"our knowledge of these disciplines is
such, that it is impossible to explain how a text produced at
the time of the Qur'an could have contained ideas that have only
been discovered in modern times."
5) Dr. Tejatet Tejasen, Head of the Department
of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chiang Mai,
Thailand. After his study on the Qur'an passages dealing with
"From my studies and what I have learnt at
this conference I believe that everything that has been recorded
in the Qur'an 1400 years ago must be true. That can be proved
the scientific way."
6) Dr. Gerald C. Goeringer. Professor and
Coordinator of Medical Embryology in the
Department of Cell Biology in the Georgetown University school
of Medicine. Washington, D.C. He has published numerous articles
dealing mainly with the study of teratogenesis.
7) Dr. Alfred Kroner, Professor of Geology,
8) Dr. Yoshiodi Kozan, Director of the
observatory of Tokyo, Japan.
9) Dr. William Hay, Professor of Oceanography,
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
10) Dr. Pete Palmer, Professor of Geology,
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
11) Dr. Sayawida, Professor of Marine Geology,
12) Dr. Armstrong, Professor of Astronomy,
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
13) Dr. Draga Persaud Rauw, Professor of
Marine Geology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
14) Dr. Schroeder, Professor of Oceanography,
The response of these scholars when presented
with verses of the Qur'an in their field of specialization,
varied. One thing however was always constant. They all
confirmed the accuracy of the scientific statements made in the
Qur'an, and they all could not explain how Muhammad (pbuh) could
have known with such accuracy the scientific claims to be found
in the Qur'an so many centuries before mankind discovered them
to be scientific truths.
Allah Almighty tells us in the Qur'an:
"Allah did not create (all) that except in
truth. He details the signs for people of knowledge."
The noble Qur'an, Yunus(10):5
"And those who were given knowledge see
that which was sent down upon you by your Lord is the truth and
guides to the path of the 'Exalted' (in Might) the 'worthy of
The noble Qur'an, Saba(34):6.
"Had We sent down this Qur'an upon a
mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and
rending asunder for fear of Allah. Such are the parables We put
forth for mankind that they may reflect."
The noble Qur'an, Al-Hashr(59):21
"Verily! this Qur'an guides to that which
is most upright, and gives glad tidings to the believers who
work deeds of righteousness that theirs will be a great reward"
The noble Qur'an, Al-Isra(17):9
"And We have indeed simplified [the
comprehension of] this Qur'an for remembrance, so is there any
that will remember [and be admonished]?"
The noble Qur'an, Al-Qamar(54):17
To obtain a more in-depth analysis of these
matters including video tapes containing interviews with many of
these pioneering Western scholars, contact one of the following
(ask for the video tape titled "It is the Truth"):
1) Islamic Academy for Scientific Research.
8150 West 111 Street
Palos Hills, IL 60465
Phone: (708) 974-9151
2) Islamic Society of North America (ISNA)
P.O. Box 38
Plainfield, Indiana, 46168
Phone: (317) 839-8157
3) Academy for the Miracles of Science in the
Qur'an and the Sunnah
P.O. Box 5736
Phone: (2) 545-1519
Also look for the books:
- "The Bible, the Qur'an and Science," by Dr.
- "The Qur'an and Modern Science," by Dr.
- "An Introduction to Understanding the
Qur'an," by Syed Abdul A'ala Maudoodi
- "The Sources of the Qur'an: A Critical
Review of the Authorship Theories," by Hamza Mustafa Njozi
- "Muhammad's Prophethood: An Analytical
View," by Dr. Jamal Badawi
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