Chapter 12: Islamic
faith : Some details
Most of the following is
obtained from the book "The Muslim's Belief" by Shaik Muhammad
ibn Saleh Al-'Uthaimin as translated by Maneh Hammad Al-Johani.
Some modifications have been made. It contains some of the
details of the Muslim's belief. As seen in the previous chapter,
this is the second level of Islamic belief. It builds upon the
basic foundation of "Islam" and is directly below the final
level of "Ihsan" (excellence). It is of course by no
1) Our Creed:
Our creed is to believe in Allah, His Angels,
His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment, and Fate whether
good or bad.
Belief in Allah's Lordship, Oneness, and Attributes
- We believe in Allah's Divinity, that is He
is the Lord, the Creator, the Sovereign, and the Manager of
- We believe in Allah's Godship; that is, He
is the True God and every other deity is false.
- We believe in His Names and Attributes,
that is He has the most magnificent Names and the sublime
- We believe in His Oneness in all this, that
is, He has no associate in His Divinity, His Godship, His
Names, or His Attributes. Allah says in the Qur'an:
"He is the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth and all that is
in between them, so worship Him and be patient in His worship,
do you know any equal to Him" (19:65)
- We believe that "Allah there is no God
but He, the Living the Everlasting. Slumber does not seize
Him, neither sleep; to Him belongs all that is in the Heavens
and the Earth. Who is there that shall intercede with Him
except by His permission? He knows what is before them and
what is behind them, and they do not encompass anything of His
knowledge except what He wills. His Throne extends over the
Heavens and the Earth; the preservation of them does not
burden Him; He is the High, the Great." (2:255)
- We believe that "He is Allah, there is
no god but He--the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, He is
the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. He is Allah, there is no God
but He, the King, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the
Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Almighty, the Subduer, the
Sublime. Glory be to Allah above what they associate with Him.
He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper, His are the
most beautiful Names. All that is in the Heavens and the Earth
glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the Wise".(59:22-4)
- We believe that to Him belongs the kingdom
of the Heavens and the Earth: "He creates what He pleases.
He gives, to whom He wills, females, and He gives, to whom He
wills, males, or He couples them, males and females; and He
makes whom He wills barren. Surely, He is the Knowing, the
- We believe that "There is nothing
whatever like unto Him, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.
To Him belongs the keys of the Heavens and the Earth. He
enlarges and restricts provisions to whom He wills. Surely He
has knowledge of everything." (42:11-12).
- We believe that "There is no creature
that moves in the Earth but its provision depends on Allah. He
knows its dwelling and its resting place. All is recorded in a
clear Book." (11:6)
- We believe that "With Him are the keys
of the Unseen; none knows them but He. He knows what is in
land and sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. Not a grain
in the deep darkness of the Earth, not a thing green or dry
but it is in a clear Book." (6:59).
- We believe that "Allah alone has the
knowledge of the Hour, sends down rain, and knows what is in
the wombs. No soul knows what it shall earn tomorrow, and no
soul knows in what land it shall die. Surely, Allah is
All-knowing, All-aware." (31:34)
- We believe that Allah speaks whatever He
pleases whenever He pleases "And Allah spoke to Moses
directly." (4:164) "And when Moses came at Our
appointed place, and his Lord spoke to him." (7:143)
"We called to him from the right side of the Mount (Sinai),
and We brought him near in communion." (19-52)
- We believe that "If the ocean became ink
for the words of my Lord, the ocean would be finished before
the words of my Lord came to an end." (18:109) "And if
all the trees that are in the earth were pens, and the ocean
(were ink), with seven oceans swelling it therefore, the words
of Allah would not be exhausted. Surely, Allah is Mighty,
- We believe that Allah's words are the most
truthful in conveying information, the most just in ruling,
and the fairest in conversation. He said, "The word of your
Lord has been fulfilled in truth and justice." (6:115)
"And who is more truthful in his word than Allah?" (4:74).
- We believe that the Qur'an is Allah's
words. He literally spoke it to Gabriel who
conveyed it to the Prophet, peace be upon him: "Say (O
Muhammad) the Holy Spirit has brought it down from your Lord
in truth." (16:102) "Truly it is the revelation of the
Lord of the worlds brought down upon your heart by the
Faithful Spirit so that you may be one of the warners, in a
clear Arabic tongue."(26: 192-5)
- We believe that Allah is well above his
creatures in His person and His Attributes, because He says,
"He is the High, the Great." (2:255) "He is Supreme over
His servants, and He is the Wise, the All-aware." (6:18).
- We believe that He "created the Heavens
and the Earth in six days, then He settled Himself on the
Throne; He manages everything." (10:3) His "settling on
the Throne" means that He is sitting in person on His
Throne in a way that is becoming to His Majesty and greatness.
Nobody except He knows exactly how He is sitting.
- We believe that He is with His creatures
while He is still on His Throne. He knows their conditions,
hears their sayings, sees their deeds and manages their
affairs. He provides for the poor and the broken. He gives
sovereignty to whom He pleases and takes away sovereignty from
whom He pleases; He exalts whom He wills and He abases whom He
wills. In His hand is all good and He is powerful over
everything. Whoever possesses these qualities is literally
with His creatures even if He is literally above them on His
Throne. "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him; He is
the All-hearing, the All-seeing." (42:11)
- We do not say as the Incarnationists among
the Jahomites and others say, that is, Allah is living with
His creatures on Earth. We consider whoever says this a
non-believer or straying away because he attributed to Allah
that which does not become Him (of defects).
- We believe in what His Messenger told us
that He descends to the near sky before the last third of
every night and says: "Who shall pray to Me and I will
answer his prayers? Who shall ask Me and I will give him? Who
shall ask my forgiveness and I will forgive him?" (Bukhari
- We believe that He will come at the Day of
Judgment to judge among His people because He said, "No
indeed! when the Earth is crushed to powder, and your Lord
comes down with the angels in rows after rows, and Hell is
brought out that day. On that day man will remember, but what
will remembrance avail him?" (89:21-23) We believe that He
is the Doer of what He wills
Allah's Will: Universal and Legal:
We believe that His will is of two kinds:
- Universal will:
through which His intention is carried out. It is not
necessary that what is carried out is liked by Him. This type
of will means "permission", as Allah said, "Had Allah
willed, they would not have fought one against the other, but
Allah does whatever He desires," (2:253) and "If Allah
desires to lead you astray, He is your Lord." (11:34).
- Legal will:
which does not necessarily entail that the execution of His
desire. The will, in this case, cannot be but what He likes,
as He said, "Allah wants to forgive you." (4:27)
The example of these two wills is a man who
has a son. This man tells his son "do not play with electricity,
it will hurt you." This man does not then tie his son to the
bed-post in order to prevent him from electrocuting himself. If
the son then disregards his father's warning then that is his
choice. It can not then be said that the son only electrocuted
himself because the father "wished" that he do so and had the
father "wished" to prevent him from doing this then he could
have tied him to the bed post his whole life.
From the above example, we see that it is
possible for God to "will" that we do good but to not force us
to do so even though that is within His power. Whatever we then
choose to do, either good or evil, is then also only
accomplished through God's "will" since He "allowed" us to do so
and did not force us to do that which He commanded us to. In all
cases, all things happen through the will of God, however, not
all things that He wills are pleasing to Him.
- We believe that His universal and legal
wills are part of His wisdom. Every thing He performs in the
universe or requires legally from His creatures
is for a good reason and according to His wisdom, whether we
grasp it or it escapes our reasons: "Is not Allah the best
of Judges?" (95-9), "And who is better than Allah in
judgment for a people who have firm faith." (5:50)
- We believe that Allah loves His select
servants and they love Him: "Say if you love Allah, follow
me and Allah will love you," (3:31) "Allah will bring a
people whom He will love and who will love Him," (5:45)
"Allah loves the steadfast," (3:146) "And act justly,
surely, Allah loves the just," (49:9) and "Do good;
Allah loves those who do good." (5:93)
- We believe that Allah likes what He
prescribed of good deeds and sayings and He dislikes what He
prohibited of bad deeds and sayings: "If you disbelieve,
surely Allah does not need you, yet He does not like disbelief
for His servants; if you are thankful, this pleases Him,"(39:7),
"But Allah disliked their marching forth. So He kept them
back, and it was said to them: 'Stay with the weaklings'."
- We believe that Allah is pleased with those
who believe in Him and do good deeds: "Allah is well
pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him. That is
for him who fears his Lord." (98:8)
- We believe that Allah is angry with those
who deserve His anger among the non-believers and others:
"And those who think evil thoughts of Allah, against them
shall be the evil turn of fortune. Allah is angry with them."
(48:6) "But whoever opens his heart to disbelief, on them
is Allah's wrath and they shall have a severe punishment ."
(16: 106) .
More of Allah's Attributes:
We, as Muslims believe that God Almighty
possesses attributes. These attributes are the epitome and
ultimate in all that is good and desirous. Although we may use
earthly terms to describe some of these attributes, still, a
Muslim does not in any way compare any of these attributes to
those of His creation. Some of these are:
- We believe that Allah has a glorious and
dignified face: "There will remain the face of your Lord,
majestic and splendid." (55:27)
- We believe that Allah has two generous
hands: "No, both His hands are wide open; He spends how He
pleases," (5:64) "They did not esteem Allah with the
esteem that is due to Him. The whole Earth will be His handful
on the Day of Resurrection, and the Heavens
will be rolled up in His right. Glory be to Him! and exalted
is He above that which they associate with Him!" (39-67)
- We believe that Allah possesses real eyes,
because He said, "And build the ark under Our eyes as We
reveal." (11:37) The Prophet, peace be upon him, said,
"His veil is light. Had He removed it, the sublimity of His
countenance would have burnt all that His sight reached."
(Muslim & Ibn Majah)
- We believe that "Eyes cannot perceive
Him, but He perceives the eyes, He is the Incomprehensible,
the All-aware." (6:103)
- We believe that the believers will see
their Lord on the Day of Resurrection:
"Upon that day some faces shall be radiant, gazing upon their
- We believe that Allah has no equal because
His Attributes are perfect: "There is
nothing whatsoever like unto Him. He is the All-Hearing, the
- We believe that "No slumber or sleep
seizes Him," (2:255) because His life is perfect
- We believe that He does not do injustice to
anybody because His fairness is perfect.
- We believe that He is not unaware of His
servants' deeds because of His perfect
supervision and comprehensive knowledge.
- We believe that He is capable of doing
anything in the Heavens or in the Earth because of His perfect
knowledge and power: "Indeed His command, when He desires a
thing, is only to say to it 'Be' and it is." (36:82)
- We believe that He is free from weariness
and weakness because of His infinite-power: "Surely, We
created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them
in six days, and no weariness touched Us." (50:38).
Describing Allah by His Revelation:
We believe in all that He assigned to Himself
or what His Messenger described Him with, of names and
attributes; but we reject two concepts:
- To say or believe that Allah's Attributes
are similar to those of His creatures; (like saying His hand
is like a human hand)
- To say or believe that Allah's Attributes
are like such and such. (like saying His will is like human
- We negate all that He negated about Himself
or what His Messenger negated about Him. We believe that
negation implies the affirmation of a perfect
opposite. We do not discuss what He or His Messenger did not
mention about Him.
- We believe that following this approach is
a must because what Allah affirmed or negated concerning
Himself is a statement He made about Himself. He knows Himself
best, His words are most just and trustful and people cannot
know everything about Him. What Allah's Messenger affirmed or
negated about Him is a statement he made about Allah. Besides
knowing Allah better than anyone, he is the most truthful,
sincere and eloquent among people. Thus, in what Allah said
and what His prophet said concerning His Names and Attributes
is truth, knowledge, and clarification. Therefore, we have no
excuse to reject or even hesitate in accepting it.
2) The Qur'an and Sunnah: Sources of His Attributes:
All that we mentioned about Allah's Attributes
whether briefly or in detail, affirmatively or negatively, is
based on the Book of our Lord and the traditions of our Prophet.
It also agrees with the practice of the previous generations of
Muslims and the rightly guided scholars who came after them.
- We believe it is obligatory to take the
texts of the Qur'an and the Prophetic traditions concerning
Allah's Attributes at their face value
and interpret them in a way that is suitable to Almighty
Allah. We reject the practice of those who twisted the
meanings of these texts and understood them in a way that was
not intended by Allah and His messenger.
- We also reject the practice of those who
made them devoid of their meanings as conveyed by Allah and
His Messenger. We finally reject the approach of the
exaggerationists who gave them a physical interpretation that
makes Allah similar to some of His creatures.
- We know for sure that what is revealed in
Allah's Book and in the traditions of His Messenger is the
truth. It does not contain any contradiction: "Do they not
ponder over the Qur'an? If it had been from other than Allah,
surely they would have found in it much discrepancy."
3) Belief in Angels:
- We believe in the existence of the angels
of Allah and that they are "honored servants. They do not
speak before He does, and they do as they are commanded."
(21:26) Allah created them and they worship and obey Him.
"Those who are at His presence do not disdain to worship Him,
nor do they weary." (21:19)
- Angels are concealed from us, we cannot see
them. Allah may show them to some of His servants. The Prophet
Muhammad saw Gabriel in his real shape with six
hundred wings that covered the horizons (Bukhari & Muslim).
Gabriel also took the form of a handsome human being when he
met Mary and exchanged conversation with her. He came to the
Prophet while he was among his companions in the appearance of
an unknown man who did not show any trace of long travel, with
very white clothes and very black hair. He sat facing the
Prophet: his knees to the Prophet's knees, peace be upon him,
and his palms on the Prophet's thighs and talked with the
Prophet. The Prophet later told his companions that the man
they saw was Gabriel (Bukhari & Muslim).
- We believe that the angels are assigned
certain functions. Among the angels is Gabriel
who is entrusted with revelation. He brings it down from Allah
to whomever Allah wishes among His Prophets and Messengers.
Among them is Michael who is in charge of rain and plantation.
Among them also is Israfil who shall be in charge of blowing
the Horn at the time of the final Thunderbolting and
Resurrection. Among them is the Angel of
death, who takes away people's souls at the time of death.
Among the angels is the one who is in charge of mountains; and
Malik, the keeper of Hell.
- Some angels are in charge of embryos in
wombs, others are responsible for protecting the human beings
and other angels are busy in recording men's deeds: two angels
for every person, "when the two angels receive (his deeds),
one sitting on the right and one on the left, not a word he
utters but by him is an observer ready." (50: 18) Some
other angels are in charge of questioning the dead after he is
put in his last abode. Two angels come to him and ask him
about his Lord, his Religion, and his Prophet. There "Allah
confirms those who believe with steadfast speech, in the
present life and the Hereafter" (14:27)
- Some of the angels are in charge of the
dwellers of Paradise: "The angels enter to them from every
gate, saying 'peace be upon you for that you were patient. How
excellent is your final home." (13:24)
- The Prophet, peace be upon him, told us
that "seventy thousand angels enter or pray in the
'Populous House' in Heaven every day. They never come back to
it as long as they live." (because their turn will never
come again) (Bukhari & Muslim).
4) Belief in Allah's Books:
- We believe that Allah revealed Books to His
Messengers as proof against mankind and a guidance for the
workers of righteousness. They purified and taught them wisdom
by these Books.
- We believe that Allah sent down a Book with
every Messenger because He says "Indeed We sent down our
Messengers with the clear signs, and We sent down with them
the Book and the Balance so that people may uphold justice."
Known Books of Allah:
Among these Books we know the following:
- The Torah which was revealed to Moses,
peace be upon him. It is the greatest among the Israelites'
books. "Surely, We sent down the Torah, wherein is guidance
and light; by its laws the Jews have been judged by the
Prophets who surrendered themselves to Allah, the rabbis and
the doctors of law because they were entrusted the protection
of Allah's book and were witnesses thereto." (5:44).
- The Gospel which Allah revealed to Jesus,
peace be upon him. It is a confirmation of the Torah and a
complement to it. "And we gave him the Gospel, wherein is
guidance and light and confirming the Torah before it, as a
guidance and an admonition to the God-fearing."(5:46)
"And to make lawful to you certain things that, before, were
forbidden to you." (3:50)
- The Psalms which Allah gave to David, peace
be upon him.
- Tablets of Abraham and Moses,
peace be upon them.
- The Glorious Qur'an which was revealed to
His Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets. It is "a
guidance to the people, and clear signs of guidance and
criterion between right and wrong." (2:185)
The Qur'an is Protected from Change:
The Qur'an is "confirming the scripture
that was before it and stands as a guardian over it (rectifying
mankind's tampering)." Thus, by the Qur'an Allah abrogated
all the previous books. Allah has also guaranteed its protection
from any play or mischievous distortion. "Indeed, We (God)
sent down the 'Reminder' (one of the names of the Qur'an) and it
is We who will guard it." (15:9). That is because the Qur'an
is a proof against mankind till the Day of Judgment.
Previous Scriptures Changed:
The previous scriptures were meant for a
limited period (and a specific people) that ended with the
revelation of what abrogated them and exposed what had taken
place in them of distortion and change. That is why they were
not protected from corruption. They underwent distortion,
addition and omission "Some of the Jews pervert words from
their meanings." (4:46) "So woe to those who write the
Book with their hands, and then say, 'This is from Allah,' that
they may purchase by it a trivial price. So woe to them for what
their hands have written, and woe to them for their earnings."
(2:79) "Say, who sent down the Book that Moses
brought as a light and a guidance to people? You make it into
sheets of paper showing some of them and concealing much."
(6:91) "And there is a group among them who twist their
tongues with the Book, that you may think it is a part of the
Book, but it is not part of the Book. And they say 'It is from
Allah,' yet it is not from Allah, and they tell a lie against
Allah and they know it." (3:78-70) "O People of the Book!
Our Messenger has come to you, making clear to you many things
you had been concealing of the Book and forgiving much.
[Indeed!] A light has come to you from Allah and a glorious
Book, with which He will guide whoever follows His pleasure in
the way of peace, and brings them forth from darkness into the
light by His will." (5:15-16).
5) Belief in Messengers;
We believe that Allah has sent to His people
messengers who were "bringing glad tidings and warning, so
that mankind might have no excuse against Allah after the
messengers. And Allah is Almighty, All-wise." (4:165)
The First and Last Messengers:
We believe that the first among the Messengers
is Noah and the last is Muhammad, peace be upon them all. "We
revealed to you as We revealed to Noah and the Prophets after
him." (4:163) "Muhammad is not the father of any of your
men, but the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets."
The Best Messengers:
- We believe that the best among the
messengers are Muhammad, Abraham, Moses,
Noah and Jesus son of Mary. It is they who are meant by the
following Qur'anic verse: "And when We took a pact from the
Prophets, and from you, and from Noah, and Abraham, Moses, and
Jesus, son of Mary. We took from them a solemn pact."
- We believe that Muhammad's message, peace
be upon him. includes all the merits of the messages of those
dignified messengers because Allah says, "He ordained for
you that He enjoined on Noah and what He revealed to you and
what He enjoined on Abraham Moses
and Jesus, [namely,] established this faith and be united in
Messengers Are Human Beings:
- We believe that all messengers are created
human beings who have none of the divine qualities of Allah.
Prophet Noah, the first among them, is quoted in the Qur'an as
saying to his people: "neither do I say to you, 'I possess
the treasures of Allah, ' nor do I know the unseen, and I do
not say: 'I am an angel'." (11:31) Allah then directed
Muhammad who is the last among them to say the same words to
his own people: "Say (O Muhammad): I do not say to you I
possess the treasures of Allah, nor do I know the unseen, and
I do not say to you 'I am an angel." (6:50) And to say:
"I have no power to bring benefit nor harm for myself, but
only as Allah wills ." (7: 188) And also to say "Say (O
Muhammad): I have no power to harm nor benefit you. Say (O
Muhammad): none can protect me from Allah, nor can I find any
refuge besides Him." (72:21-22)
- We believe that the messengers are among
Allah's servants. He blessed them with the message and
described them as servants, in the context of praising and
honoring them. So, He says about Noah, the first among them:
"You are the descendants of those whom We carried with
Noah, he was a truly thankful servant." (17:3). Allah said
about the last among them, Muhammad, peace be upon him:
"Blessed be He who sent down the Qur'an to His servant, that
he may warn mankind." (25: 1) He said about some other
messengers: "And mention our servants Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob men of might and
vision." (38:45) "And remember our servants David who
was a mighty and penitent man." (38:17) "And to David,
we gave Solomon. How excellent a servant [was
he]! [Indeed] he was penitent." (38:30). Allah said about
Jesus, son of Mary: "He is only a servant whom We blessed
and We made him an example to the children of Israel."
(63:59) We believe that Allah concluded all messages with the
message of Muhammad, peace be upon him, to all people because
Allah said: "Say, 'O mankind, I am Allah's messenger to you
all. To Him belongs the Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth;
There is no god but He. He ordains life and death. So believe
in Allah and His messenger, the unlettered Prophet who
believes in Allah and His words. Follow him so that you may be
rightly guided." (7: 158)
Islam: The Universal and Final Message:
- We believe that the Shari'ah (law) of the
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is the religion of Islam
which Allah has chosen for His servants. After the coming of
Muhammad (pbuh), He does not accept from anyone any other
religion, because Allah, the Exalted, said, "Surely, the
true religion in Allah's sight is Islam," (3:19) and He
also said, "Today I have perfected your religion for you
and I have completed my favor upon you, and I have chosen
Islam to be your religion." (5:3) And "whoever desires
a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from
him, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers."
- It is also our belief that whoever rejects
the universal message of Muhammad, peace be upon him, is
rejecting the message of all messengers, even if he claims
that he believes and follows his messenger. Allah the Exalted,
said: "Noah's people rejected the messengers." (26:105)
Thus, Allah considered them rejecting all the messengers
despite the fact that there was no messenger before Noah. This
is also clear from the following verses: "Those who
disbelieve in Allah and His messengers, and wish to make
division between Allah and His messengers, and say: 'We
believe in some and disbelieve in others,' wishing to take a
midway course. Those indeed are the disbelievers. And We have
prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment."
- We believe that there is no prophet after
Muhammad, Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him. Whoever claims
prophethood after him, or believes in anyone claiming it, is a
disbeliever because he is rejecting Allah, His messenger, and
the Muslims' consensus.
The Prophet's Companions:
- We believe that the best among the Muslim
Ummah (community) are the Prophet's Companions, then their
followers, and those who followed them .
- We also believe that a group of this Ummah
will always remain victorious on the right path, unharmed by
those who let them down or those who oppose them, until the
Day of Judgment.
6) Belief In The Day Of Judgment:
We believe in the Final Day, which is the Day
of Judgment, when people will be resurrected alive to remain in
the abode of eternal enjoyment or in the abode of eternal severe
Belief In Resurrection (for judgment):
We believe in Resurrection
which is Allah's bringing to life all the dead when the angel
Israfil blows the Horn for the second time, "And the Trumpet
shall be blown and all who are in the Heavens and who are in the
Earth shall be thunder-stuck except those that Allah shall
spare. Then, it shall be blown again and they shall rise gazing
around them." (39:68) People will stand up from their
graves, answering the call of the Lord of the Universe. They are
going to be bare-footed, and naked, "As We started the first
creation, so We shall bring it back again. This is a promise
from Us, We shall assuredly fulfill it." (21:104)
Belief in the Records & Scales:
We believe in the records of deeds that will
be given to people in their right hands, or behind their backs
in the left hands: "As for him who is given his book in his
right hand, he shall surely receive an easy reckoning and he
will return to his family rejoicing. But as for him who is given
his book behind his back, he shall beg for destruction upon
himself and will burn in a Blazing Fire." (84:7-12)
"Every man's work We have fastened on his own neck, and on the
Day of Judgment We shall bring out for him a book which he will
see spread open, saying, 'Read your own book! Your own soul
suffices this day as a witness against you.'" (17:13-14)
We believe that scales of deeds will be set up
on the Day of Judgment and no soul shall be wronged. "Whoever
has done an atom's weight of good shall see it." (99:708)
"Those whose scales are heavy, they are the successful; but
those whose scales are light, they are the ones who have lost
their souls in Hell dwelling forever. The Fire will burn their
faces, and their countenances are despondent therein."
(23:102-4) "He that does a good deed shall be rewarded ten
times the like of it, and he that does evil shall only be
rewarded the like of it, and they shall not be wronged."
The Prophet's Intercession:
- We believe in the special great
Intercession of the Prophet Muhammad, peace
be upon him. He will plead with Allah, after His permission
and on behalf of mankind, to judge among His servants when
they suffer from worries and troubles which they cannot bear.
They will first go to Adam, then Noah, then Abraham,
then to Moses, then to Jesus in search of
intercession, but all of them will refuse to provide this
intercession due to the tremendous horror of that day.
Finally, they will go to Muhammad, peace be upon him, and they
will find intercession with him.
- We believe in the intercession which
concerns some believers who were to be taken out from the
Fire. This mediation is granted to the Prophet Muhammad, peace
be upon him, and to others among the Prophets, the believers,
and the angels.
- We believe also that Allah will save from
Hell some people among the believers without the intercession
of any one, but by His grace and mercy.
The Prophet's Pool:
We believe in the Pool of the Prophet, peace
be upon him, the water of which is whiter than milk and sweeter
than honey and better in fragrance than musk. Each of its length
and width is the distance of a months travel. Its cups are as
stars in beauty and number. The believers among the Prophet's
followers come to take from this great cistern a drink after
which they will never again be thirsty for all of eternity.
The Straight Path:
- We believe in the Straight Path
(Sirat) set up over Hell. People pass over it according to
their deeds: the first of them as fast as lighting, then as
fast as wind, then as fast as birds, and then as running men.
The Prophet will be standing on the Path, saying, "My Lord,
Save! Save!" Some people's deeds will fall short. Some of them
will come crawling. At both sides of the Path there are hooks
that are designed to take whom Allah wills: some are saved but
bruised; others are thrown into Hell. (Bukhari & Muslim). We
believe in all that is mentioned in the Qur'an or the
Prophetic sayings concerning that day and its horrors, may
Allah save us all from them.
- We believe in the intercession (shafa'ah)
of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, for the people of
Paradise to enter therein. This intercession is exclusively
limited to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
Belief in Paradise & Hell:
- We believe in Paradise and Hell. Paradise
is the abode of enjoyment which Allah, the Exalted, prepared
for the righteous. The blessing they enjoy there, no eye has
ever seen, no ear has ever heard of, and no human being has
ever imagined: "No soul knows what comfort is kept hidden
for them, as a reward for that which they used to do."
(32:17) Hell is the abode of punishment which Allah has
prepared for the unbelievers and the evildoers. The torture
and horror in it cannot be imagined. "Surely, We have
prepared for the unjust a fire, whose pavilion encompasses
them. If they call for help, they will be helped with water
like molten copper which will scald their faces. How dreadful
a drink and how evil a resting-place!" (18:29)
- Both Paradise and Hell are existing now and
they will never perish. "Whoever believes in Allah and does
righteousness, He will admit him to Gardens beneath which
rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever. Allah had indeed made
for him an excellent provision." (65:11) "Certainly,
Allah has cursed the unbelievers and prepared for them a
blazing Fire to dwell therein forever, they shall find neither
protector nor helper. On the day when their faces are rotated
in the Fire, they shall say "Would that we had obeyed Allah
and obeyed the Messenger!" (33:64-6)
- We confirm Paradise to whom it is confirmed
in the Qur'an or the Prophetic traditions either by name or
description. Among those who are granted Paradise and
mentioned by names are Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, 'Ali and
others who were specified by the Prophet, peace be upon him (Bukhari
- We likewise confirm Hell to whom it is
confirmed in the Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet,
whether in name or description. Among those who are mentioned
by names to be in Hell are Abu Lahab, 'Amr Ibn Luhai Al-Khuza'i
and others (Bukhari & Muslim). Confirmation of Hell which is
based on description includes every unbeliever, polytheist or
Belief in What Happens in the Grave
- We believe in the trial of the grave,
which is the questioning of the dead person in his grave about
his Lord, his religion and his Prophet. There "Allah
strengthens those who believe with firm speech, in the present
life and the Hereafter." (14:27) The believer will say:
"Allah is my Lord, Islam is my religion, and Muhammad is my
Prophet." The unbeliever or the hypocrite will say, "I don't
know, I heard the people saying something and I said it."
- We believe in the comfort of the grave
for the believers. "Those whose lives the angels take in
state of purity, saying 'peace be on you; enter Paradise for
what you used to do." (16:32)
- We believe in the punishment of the grave
for the transgressing unbelievers: "If you could only see
when the evildoers are in the agonies of death and the angels
are stretching out their hands, saying, 'Give up your souls!
Today you shall be rewarded with the punishment of humiliation
for what you used to say untruly about Allah, and for
scornfully rejecting His signs." (6:93) The sayings of the
Prophet are numerous and well-known in this area. A Muslim
must believe in all that is reported in the Qur'an and
Prophetic traditions concerning the unseen matters. He should
not contradict it by his worldly experience because the
affairs of the Hereafter cannot be measured by the affairs of
this life. The difference between them is very great. Allah is
the source of help.
7) Belief in Fate and Divine Decree:
We believe in Fate, whether good or bad, which
Allah has measured and ordained for all creatures according to
His previous knowledge and as deemed suitable by His wisdom.
Levels Of Belief In Fate:
Belief in Fate has four levels:
- The first level is knowledge: We believe
that Allah, may He be exalted, knows everything. He knew what
had happened and what will happen and how it will happen. His
knowledge is eternal. He does not acquire new knowledge nor
does he forget what He Knows .
- The second level is Recording: We believe
that Allah has recorded in the "Secured Tablet" (al-Lawh al-Mahfudh)
whatever is going to happen until the Day of Judgment. "Did
you not know that Allah knows all that is in Heaven and Earth?
Surely that is in a Book. Surely that for Allah is an trivial
- The third level is Will: We believe that
Allah has willed everything in the Heaven and Earth. Nothing
happens except by His will; whatever He wills will take place;
and whatever He does not wish will not take place.
- The fourth level is Creation: We believe
that "Allah is the Creator of all things; He is the
Guardian over all things, and to Him belong the keys of the
Heavens and the Earth." (39:62-3)
The fourth level include whatever Allah
Himself does and whatever His creatures do. So, all that people
perform of sayings, deeds, or omissions are known to Allah and
He has recorded them, willed them and created them, "For
those among you who wish to be upright. But you shall not will
except as Allah wills, the Lord of the Worlds." (81:28-29)
"And had Allah willed they would not have fought one against
the other; but Allah does whatever He desires." (2:253)
"Had Allah willed, they would not have done so, but leave them
alone and their false inventions." (6:137) "And Allah
created you and what you do." (37:96)
We believe, however, that Allah has granted
humanity the power and freewill by which he performs his action.
That man's deeds are by his power and freewill can be proven by
the following points:
- Firstly, Allah's saying, "Had they
desired to go forth, they would have made some preparation for
it." (9:46) In this verse Allah affirmed for mankind "a
going forth" by his will and "a preparation" by his desire.
- Secondly, directing man to do or not to do.
If man has no freewill and power, these directions mean that
Allah is asking man to do that which he cannot. This
proposition is rejected by Allah's wisdom, His mercy and His
truthful statement in the verse "Allah does not charge a
soul beyond its capacity." (2:286)
- Thirdly, Praising the virtuous for his
deeds and blaming the evildoer for his actions and rewarding
each of them with what he deserves. If the action is not done
by the individual's freewill, then praising the virtuous is a
joke and punishing the evildoer is an injustice, and Allah is,
of course, free from joking and being unjust.
- Fourthly, Allah has sent messengers who are
"bearing good tidings, and warning, so that mankind might
have no excuse against Allah after the messengers."
(40:165) If the individual's action is not performed by his
freewill, his argument is not invalidated by the sending of
- Fifthly, every doer of actions feels that
he does or does not do a thing without any coercion. He stands
up and sits; comes in and goes out; travels and stays by his
own freewill without feeling anybody forcing him to do any of
these actions. In fact, he clearly distinguishes between doing
something of his own freewill and someone else forcing him to
do that action. The Islamic law also wisely distinguishes
between these states of affairs. It does not punish a
wrong-doer for an action done under compulsion.
No Excuse in Fate for Sinners:
We believe that the sinner has no excuse in
Allah's Divine Decree because he commits his sin by his
freewill, without knowing that Allah has decreed it on him. That
is, because no one knows Allah's decree before it takes place:
"No soul knows what it will earn tomorrow." (31: 34) How
can it be possible, then, to present an excuse that is not known
to the person who is advancing it when he commits his offense?
Allah invalidated this type of argument in His saying: "The
idolaters will say 'Had Allah willed, we would not have been
idolaters, neither our fathers, nor would we have forbidden
anything.' So did the people before them disbelieve until they
tasted our might. Say: 'Have you any [true] knowledge that you
can produce for Us? You follow nothing but assumption, and you
are but lying." (6:148) We say to the sinner who is using
Divine Decree as an excuse: 'Why did not you perform deeds of
obedience assuming that Allah has decreed them upon you since
there is no difference between them and sins in being unknown
before they happened from you? That is why when Prophet Muhammad
told his companions that everyone's position in Paradise or Hell
has been assigned, they said: "Should not we rely on this and
stop working?" He said: "No, work and every one will be
directed to what he is created for." (Bukhari & Muslim)
We may say to the sinner who is trying to find
excuse in Divine Decree: "Suppose, you want to travel to Makkah.
There are two roads that may take you there. You are told by a
truthful person that one of these roads is dangerous and
difficult, the other is easy and safe. You will take the second
one. You will not take the first road and say it is decreed upon
me. If you did, people would consider you crazy.
We may also say to him: "If you are offered
two jobs, one of them is higher in salary. You will certainly
take the one with the higher salary. Why then do you choose what
is lower in the Hereafter and use Divine Decree as an excuse?"
We may further say to him: "We see you when
you are inflicted with a disease, you knock every physician's
door looking for treatment and bearing whatever pain that may
result from surgical operations and the bitterness of medicine.
Why do you not do the same when your heart is spiritually sick
8) Fruits of Faith
This sublime belief which includes those great
principles bears numerous and useful types of fruits for whoever
believes in it.
Virtues of Belief in Allah:
Belief in Allah, His Names and His Attributes
instills in the individual Allah's love and His glorification
that result in performing Allah's instructions and avoiding His
prohibition which are the means of achieving ultimate happiness
in this life and the Hereafter for the individual as well as the
society. "Whoever, male or female, does righteous deed, while
believing, We shall assuredly grant him a goodly life, and We
shall reward them according to the best of their deeds."
Virtues of Belief in the Angels:
- Firstly, appreciating the Dignity of Allah,
His might and His sovereignty.
- Secondly, gratitude toward Allah because He
puts some of the angels in charge of His servants, recording
their deeds and other things that benefit them.
- Thirdly, love and admiration for the angels
because of what they are doing, namely, worshipping Allah in
the best possible manner and praying for the believers.
Virtues of Belief in the Books:
- Firstly, appreciating Allah's mercy and
care for His people in that He sent down a Book to every
nation for their guidance.
- Secondly, appreciating Allah's Wisdom
because He revealed in these Books to every nation what suit
them. The glorious Qur'an is the final among these Books and
it is suitable to all people at all times until the Day of
- Thirdly, showing gratitude for Allah's
mercy in revealing these Books.
Virtues of Belief in Messengers:
- Firstly, appreciating Allah's mercy and
care for His people for sending them those great messengers to
guide them to the straight Path.
- Secondly, thanking Allah for this great
- Thirdly, loving and respecting the Prophets
and praising them in what they deserve because they are
Allah's messengers and His choice among His people. They
worshipped Allah according to the best of their ability,
conveyed His message to mankind, gave sincere advise to them
and bore patiently whatever hurt they received.
Virtues of Belief in the Day of Judgment:
- Firstly, endeavoring to obey Allah to get
the reward of that day and to avoid His disobedience for fear
of His punishment.
- Secondly, a consolation for the believer
for whatever he misses of worldly enjoyment by what he hopes
to gain of blessings and reward of the Hereafter.
Virtues of Belief in Fate and Divine Decree:
- Firstly, dependence on Allah when doing any
action because both the cause and effect are the result of
- Secondly, ease of mind and comfort because
when the individual knows that everything is by Allah's decree
and that mishaps are going to take place anyway, his soul will
be at ease and his heart will be satisfied with Allah's
decree. No one has more comfortable life, worry-free soul, and
stronger confidence than a believer in Fate.
- Thirdly, freedom from arrogance when a goal
is achieved because this is a blessing from Allah through what
He decreed of the causes of good and success. The individual
should thank Allah for that and free himself from arrogance.
- Fourthly, freedom from worry and boredom in
case of failure or mishap because that is by Allah's decree
who possesses the Heavens and the Earth. Since that is going
to happen anyway, the individual should be patient and hope
for the reward from Allah.
Allah points to the last two virtues by the
following verse: "No misfortune can happen on earth or in
yourselves but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into
existence, that is trivial for Allah; that you may not grieve
for what escapes you, nor rejoice [excessively] in what has come
to you. Allah does not love any vainglorious boaster."
We pray to Allah, the Exalted, to reward us
for this belief, to realize for us its fruits, to increase our
blessings, to keep us on the Right Path to which He has guided
us, and to bestow on us a blessing from Him, He is indeed the
Giver. Praise and gratitude be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds
and peace and blessings be on the Prophet Muhammad, his family,
his Companions, and those who rightly follow them.
To learn more about the teachings of Islam,
- "Towards Understanding Islam," by Abul A`la
- "Concept of Islam," by Mahmoud Abu-Saud
- "Islam In Focus," by Hammudah Abdalati
- "The Key ot Ultimate Prosperity," by
Muhammad Ameen C. Cave
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