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The Lord Complete Holy Book (The Quran)

in English Audio Spoken by J.D. Hall

Translated by Malik

 

Now Playing # (33) The Confederates (Al-Ahzab)

(73 Verses)
 
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In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

SECTION: 1
O Prophet! Fear Allah and do not obey the unbelievers and the hypocrites: certainly Allah is aware and wise.[1] Follow that which is revealed to you from your Rabb: for Allah is aware of what you do.[2] Put your trust in Allah: for Allah is your all-sufficient protector.[3]

33:[1-3]


Fear Allah and do not obey the unbelievers and hypocrites

Allah has not put two hearts in a person’s body: nor does He regard your wives whom you divorce through Zihăr (divorcing a wife saying: from now on you are as my mother, depriving her conjugal rights yet keeping her like a slave nor letting her marry anyone else) as your mothers: nor does He regard your adopted sons as your sons. These are mere words which you utter with your mouths; but Allah declares the Truth and guides you to the Right Way.[4] Name your adopted sons after their fathers; that is more just in the sight of Allah, and if you don’t know who their fathers are, then call them as your brothers in faith and your friends. There is no blame on you for an unintentional mistake, but you will be held responsible for what you do with the intention of your hearts; Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.[5]

33:[4-5]

By word of mouth neither your wives become your mothers nor adopted sons become your real sons

The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are as their mothers. Blood relatives have a greater claim on one another than the other believers and the Muhăjirin (early Muslims who migrated from Makkah to Madinah) according to the Book of Allah: although you are permitted to some good (through leaving bequests) for your friends . This has been written in the Book of Allah.[6] O Muhammad, remember the Covenant which We took from all the Prophets - from you as well as from Nüh, Ibrăhďm, Musa and Isa (Jesus) son of Maryam - We took that solemn Covenant from all of them,[7] so that He may question the truthful concerning the Truth (that they were entrusted with): as for the unbelievers, He has prepared a painful punishment.[8]

33:[6-8]

The Prophet's wives are the believers' mothers


Blood relations have greater claims than others in the Book of Allah

SECTION: 2
O believers! Remember the favor of Allah, which he bestowed on you, when you were attacked by your enemy’s army (during the battle of Trench/Confederates) and We unleashed against them violent winds and invisible forces. Allah saw all that you were doing.[9] When the enemy attacked you from above and from below; when your eyes were petrified due to fear and your hearts leaped up to your throats, and you began to entertain all sorts of doubts about Allah,[10] there, the believers were put to test; and were shaken with tremendous shaking.[11]

33:[9-11]


Favors of Allah during the battle of Trench

Remember, when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts there was a disease were openly saying: “Allah and His Rasool promised us nothing but delusion!”[12] And a party of them said: “O people of Yathrib (Madinah)! You cannot stand the attack much longer. Go back to your city.” And yet another party of them sought leave of the Prophet saying: “In fact our houses are insecure,” whereas they were not insecure. They intended nothing but to run away from the battlefront.[13] Had the city been entered from all sides, and had they been incited to sedition, they would have had little hesitation to become partners in it.[14] Even though they had made covenant with Allah not to show their backs, and the covenant with Allah must surely be answered for.[15]

33:[12-15]

The attitude of the Hypocrites during the battle of Trench

Tell them: “Running away will not do you any good, and if you are running away from death or being killed, you would enjoy this life only for a little while."[16] Ask them: “Who can protect you from Allah if He intends to harm you or who can prevent Him if He intends to show you mercy?” They will find none besides Allah to protect or help them.[17] Allah is well aware of those among you who hold others back and those who say to their brethren: “Join us,” and seldom take part in the fighting themselves.[18] They are ever reluctant to assist you. Whenever they are in danger, they look towards you with their eyes rolling as though they were at the point of death, but when they are out of danger, they will come to greet you with their sharp tongues in greed for gain. Such people have no faith. Allah has made all their deeds null and void, and this is easy for Allah.[19] They thought that the confederates would never withdraw. Indeed, if the confederates should come again, they would wish to be among the beduins and seek news about you from a safe distance; and if they happened to be with you, they would take but a little part in the fighting.[20]

33:[16-20]

Those who discourage others from participating in the fight against the unbelievers and don't participate in such a war themselves have no faith and all their deeds will be null and void

SECTION: 3
You have indeed, in the life of Rasool-Allah, the 'Best Model' for him whose hope is in Allah and the Day of the Hereafter, and who engages himself much in the remembrance of Allah.[21] When the true believers saw the confederate forces they said: “This is what Allah and His Rasool had promised us: Allah and his Rasool were absolutely true." This increased them all the more in their faith and their zeal in obedience.[22] Among the believers there are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah: of them some have completed their vow through sacrificing their lives, and some others are waiting for it, and have not changed their determination in the least.[23] All this happens so that Allah may reward the truthful for their truth and punish the hypocrites or accept their repentance if He wills: for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.[24]

33:[21-24]


The Life of Rasool Allah (Muhammad) is the best Model for you

Allah turned back the unbelievers; they retreated in their rage without gaining any advantage, and Allah was sufficient to fight on behalf of the believers; for Allah is All-Powerful, All-Mighty.[25] And brought down, from their fortresses, those people of the Book (The Jews of Bani Qurayzah) who supported the invaders, and cast terror into their hearts. As a result, some of them you slew and some you took as prisoners.[26] Thus He made you heirs of their lands, their houses and their goods, and also the land (Khayber) on which you had never set your foot before. Truly, Allah has power over all things.[27]

33:[25-27]

Allah helped the Muslims gain victory over the unbelievers and the Jewish tribes in Madinah and Khayber

SECTION: 4
O Prophet! Say to your wives: “If you desire the life of this world and its glitter, then come, I shall give you of these and let you go in an honorable way.”[28] But if you seek Allah and His Rasool and the home of the hereafter, then you should rest assured that Allah has prepared a great reward for those of you who are good.[29] O wives of the Prophet! If any of you were guilty of open indecency, her punishment will be increased to double and this is easy for Allah.[30]

33:[28-30]

Admonition to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

Those of you (O wives of the Prophet Muhammad) who obey Allah and His Rasool and practice righteousness, shall be granted double reward, and for them We have prepared a generous provision.[31] O wives of the Prophet! You are not like the other women: if you fear Allah, then you should not be complaisant while talking to the men who are not closely related to you, lest the one in whose heart is a disease may thereby be encouraged, and speak using suitable good words.[32] Stay in your homes and do not display your finery as women used to do in the days of ignorance (pre-Islamic days); establish Salah, pay Zakah, and obey Allah and His Rasool. O women of the household of Rasool, Allah only intends to remove uncleanliness from you and to purify you completely.[33] Remember the revelations of Allah and wise sayings which are recited in your homes, surely Allah is aware of even the finest mysteries.[34]

33:[31-34]

Allah's commandment to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad

SECTION: 5
Surely the Muslim men and the Muslim women, the believing men and the believing women, the devout men and the devout women, the truthful men and the truthful women, the patient men and the patient women, the humble men and humble women, the charitable men and the charitable women, the fasting men and the fasting women, the men who guard their chastity and the women who guard their chastity, and the men who remember Allah much and the women who remember Allah much - for all those, Allah has prepared forgiveness and a great reward.[35] It is not fitting for a believing man or a believing woman to have an option in their affairs when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Rasool; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Rasool has indeed strayed into a clearly wrong path.[36]

33:[35-36]




It is not fitting for believers to have option in what has been decided by Allah and His Rasool

O Prophet, remember when you said to the one (Zaid, Prophet's adopted son) whom Allah as well as you had favored: “Keep your wife in wedlock and fear Allah.” You sought to hide in your heart what Allah intended to reveal; you were afraid of the people whereas it would have been more appropriate to fear Allah. So when Zaid divorced his wife, We gave her to you in marriage, so that there remains no hindrance for the believers to wed the wives of their adopted sons if they divorced them. And Allah’s Command had to be carried out.[37] There can be no blame attached to the Prophet for doing what is sanctioned for him by Allah. Such has been the way of Allah with those who have gone before; and the decrees of Allah are preordained.[38] Those who are charged with the mission of conveying the message of Allah are to fear Him, they are supposed to fear none but Allah; for Allah is sufficient to settle their account.[39] Muhammad is not the father of any of your men (he is not going to leave any male heirs). He is the Rasool of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets. Allah has the knowledge of all things.[40]

33:[37-40]

Allah commanded the Prophet Muhammad to marry the divorced wife of his adopted son



Muhammad is not the father of any of your men but a Rasool and Seal of the Prophethood

SECTION: 6
O believers! Remember Allah as a frequent remembrance,[41] and glorify Him morning and evening.[42] It is He Who sends His blessings on you (believers) and so do His angels, that He may bring you out of darkness into light, for He is Merciful to the believers.[43] On the Day of their meeting with Him, their greeting shall be: “Salaam (peace)!”: and He has prepared for them a generous reward.[44] O Prophet! Surely We have sent you as a witness, as a bearer of good news and as a Warner,[45] and to call the people towards Allah by His leave and a lamp spreading light (guidance).[46] Give good news to the believers that they shall have great blessings from Allah.[47] Do not obey the unbelievers and the hypocrites, disregard their annoyances and put your trust in Allah; for Allah is sufficient as a disposer of affairs.[48]

33:[41-48]





The Prophet is sent as a bearer of good news, as a Warner and as a lamp spreading light

O believers! If you marry believing women and divorce them before the marriage is consummated, you are not required to observe the Iddat (waiting period) which you should count for them, so give them some present and relieve them gracefully.[49] O Prophet! We have made lawful to you the wives to whom you have given their dowers; and those ladies whom your right hands possess (from the prisoners of war) whom Allah has assigned to you; and the daughters of your paternal uncles and aunts, and the daughters of your maternal uncles and aunts, who have migrated with you; and the believing woman who gave herself to the Prophet if the Prophet desires to marry her - this permission is only for you and not for the other believers; We know what restrictions We have imposed on the other believers concerning their wives and those whom their right hands possess. We have granted you this privilege as an exception so that no blame may be attached to you. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.[50] You may put off any of your wives you please and take to your bed any of them you please, and there is no blame on you if you call back any of them you had temporarily set aside. This is most proper, so that their eyes may be cooled and they may not grieve, and that they will remain satisfied with what you give them. O believers! Allah knows all that is in your hearts; for Allah is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.[51] It shall be unlawful for you, O Muhammad, to marry more women after this or to change your present wives with other women, though their beauty may be pleasing to you, however those ladies whom your right hands possess are an exception. Allah takes cognizance of all things.[52]

33:[49-52]

Divorce when no Iddat (waiting period for remarriage) is required


Special permission for the Prophet Muhammad to marry more than four wives



Restriction on the Prophet to marry or exchange the present wives after this commandment

SECTION: 7
O believers! Do not enter the houses of the Prophet without permission, nor stay waiting for meal time: but if you are invited to a meal, enter, and when you have eaten disperse and do not seek long conversation. Such behavior annoys the Prophet, he feels shy in asking you to leave, but Allah does not feel shy in telling the truth. If you have to ask his wives for anything, speak to them from behind a curtain. This is more chaste for your hearts and for theirs. It is not proper for you to annoy the Rasool of Allah, nor ever to marry his wives after him; this would be a grievous offence in the sight of Allah.[53] Whether you reveal anything or conceal it, surely Allah has full knowledge of all things.[54] There is no blame on the ladies if they appear before their fathers, their sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their familiar women and those whom their right hands possess (slaves). O Ladies! Have fear of Allah: for Allah is a witness to all things.[55]

33:[53-55]


Do not enter the houses of the Prophet without permission, and if invited, do not seek long conversation

Do not marry the Rasool's wives after his death

Indeed Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet. O believers, call for Allah’s blessings on him and salute him with all respect.[56] Surely those who annoy Allah and His Rasool, are cursed by Allah in this world and in the hereafter. He has prepared for them a humiliating punishment.[57] And those who annoy believing men and believing women, for no fault of theirs, shall bear the guilt of slander and an evident sin.[58] 33:[56-58]

33:[25-27]

Allah Himself and His angels send blessings on the Prophet, O believers do the same

SECTION: 8
O Prophet! Enjoin your wives, daughters and the believing women that they should draw their outer garments over their persons. That is more proper, so that they may be recognized and not bothered. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.[59]

33:[59]

Commandment of Hijăb (dress code) for women

If the hypocrites, those in whose hearts is malice and the scandal mongers of Madinah do not desist; We shall rouse you against them, and their days in the city - as your neighbors - will be numbered.[60] They shall be cursed wherever they are found and they shall be seized and killed mercilessly.[61] This has been the Way of Allah regarding such people among those who lived before you, and you will never find any change in the Way of Allah.[62]

33:[60-62]

Punishment for the Hypocrites and scandal mongers

People ask you about the Hour of Doom. Tell them: “Allah Alone has the knowledge of it. Who knows? It may be that the Hour is near at hand.”[63] Surely Allah has laid a curse on the unbelievers and has prepared for them a blazing fire;[64] to live therein forever and they shall find no protector or helper.[65] That Day, when their faces will roll about in the fire, they will say: “Woe to us! Would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Rasool.”[66] They will further say: “Our Rabb! We obeyed our chiefs and our great ones and they misled us from the Right Way.[67] Our Rabb! Give them double punishment and lay on them a mighty curse.”[68]

33:[63-68]

The unbelievers shall ask double punishment for their leaders

SECTION: 9
O believers! Be not like those who slandered Musa, but Allah cleared him of what they said - for he was honorable in the sight of Allah.[69] O believers! Fear Allah and always say the right thing;[70] He will bless your works and forgive your sins - for he that obeys Allah and His Rasool, has indeed achieved the highest achievement.[71] The fact is that We offered the Trust ( "freedom of choice" and to voluntarily use this option according to the will of Allah) to the heavens, to the earth and to the mountains, but they refused to undertake it and were afraid, but man undertook it. He was indeed unjust and foolish.[72] (The inevitable result of bearing the burden of Allah’s Trust is) that Allah will punish the hypocrite men, the hypocrite women, the mushrik men and the mushrik women, and that Allah will turn in mercy to the believing men and the believing women: for Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.[73]

33:[69-73]

O believers! Fear Allah and always say the right thing



The heavens, earth and mountains refuse to take the Trust (freedom of choice) but man took it

Major Issues, Divine Law and Guidance:

* Fear Allah and do not obey the unbelievers and the hypocrites.
* Laws relating to:
Divorce * Status of an adopted son
* By word of mouth, neither your wives become your real mothers nor your adopted sons your real sons.
* Prophet’s wives are declared to be the mothers of all believers.
* Blood relations have greater claims than others in the Book of Allah.
* Battle of the Trench (Ahzăb)
Favors of Allah
Attitudes of the hypocrites
Non participants are declared to have no faith at all and that all their deeds are void.
* The life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is declared to be a model for all.
* Admonition to the wives of the Prophet.
* It is not befitting for the believers to have options in what has been decided by Allah and His Rasool.
* Allah’s commandment to the Prophet to marry the divorced wife of his adopted son.
* The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is not the father of any of your men but a Rasool and Seal of the Prophethood.
* The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is given special permission to marry more than four wives along with restriction of neither to marry any more nor to divorce any for marring another in her place after this commandment.
* Etiquettes concerning the visits to the Prophet’s household.
* Allah Himself and His angels send blessings on the Prophet, and the believers are commanded to do the same.
* Laws of Hijăb (dress code) for women.
* The trust of Allah was presented to the heavens, the earth and the mountains: they refused to take that responsibility but man took it.
 

The Battle of the Trench

Background

Soon after the battle of Uhud Bani Asad started making preparations for a raid on Madinah. The Prophet sent an army of 150 warriors under the command of Sayyidună Abu Salmah (the first husband of Sayyidah Umme Salmah). This army took Bani Asad by surprise and made them run in a panic leaving all their possessions behind. After this, Bani An-Nadhir, a Jewish tribe, plotted to kill the Prophet but their plot was discovered in time. The Prophet ordered them to leave Madinah within ten days and warned that anyone who remained behind after that would be put to death. Abdullah bin Ubayy, the chief of the hypocrites of Madinah, encouraged them to defy the order and refuse to leave Madinah. He even promised to help them with 2,000 men, and assured them that the Bani Ghatfăn from Najd also would come to their aid. As a result, Bani An-Nadhir refused to follow the order and said that they would not leave Madinah no matter what. As soon as the time limit of ten days came to an end, the Prophet laid siege to their quarters, but none of their supporters had the courage to come to their rescue. At last, they surrendered on condition that every three of them would be allowed to load a camel with whatever they could carry and go away leaving the rest of their possessions behind. Thus, the entire suburbs of the city, which were inhabited by the Bani An-Nadhir, their gardens, their fortresses and other properties fell into the hands of Muslims.

After this, the Prophet received information that the tribe of Bani Ghatfăn was preparing for a war against Madinah. He marched against them with 400 Muslims and overtook them by surprise. As a result, they fled their houses without any struggle and took refuge in the mountains.

After this in the month of Sh’abăn A. H. 4, the Prophet went to the place of Badr with 1500 Muslims to fight against Abu Sufyăn, who had challenged the Prophet and the Muslims at the end of the Battle of Uhud, saying: “We shall again meet you in combat at Badr next year.” The Prophet accepted his challenge. From the other side, Abu Sufyăn left Makkah with an army of 2,000 men, but did not have the courage to march beyond the town of Marr-Az-Zahrăn, now known as Wadi Fătimah. The Prophet waited for him at Badr for eight days; the Muslims during these days did profitable business with a trading caravan. This incident helped in restoring the image of the Muslims that had been tarnished at Uhud. It also made the whole of Arabia realize that the Qureysh alone could no longer resist Muhammad (pbuh).
 

The Battle

The leaders of the Bani an-Nadhir, who had settled in Khayber after their banishment from Madinah, went around to the Qureysh, Ghatfăn, Hudhail and many other tribes requesting them to gather all their forces and attack Madinah jointly. Thus, in Shawwăl, A. H. 5, a very large army of the Arab tribes marched against the small city of Madinah. From the north came the Jews of Bani an-Nadir and Bani Qainuqah. From the east advanced the tribes of Ghatfăn, Bani Sulaima, Fazarah, Murrah, Ashja, S‘ad, Asad, etc. and from the south the Qureysh along with a large force of their allies numbering from ten to twelve thousand warriors. Had it been a sudden attack, it would have been disastrous. Before the enemy could reach Al-Madinah, the Prophet got a trench dug on the northwest of Madinah in six days and took up defensive positions with 3,000 warriors. Mount Salat was at their back, and thick palm tree gardens on their south, therefore, the enemy could not attack from those sides. The same was the case on the east side where there were lava rocks which were impassable for a large army to cross. The same was the case with the south- western side. The attack, therefore, could be made only from the eastern and western sides of the Uhud mountain, which the Prophet had secured by digging a trench. The disbelievers were not at all aware that they would have to encounter a trench outside Madinah. This kind of a defensive stratagem was unknown to the Arabs. Thus, they had to lay a long siege during winter for which they were not prepared.

The only alternative that remained for the disbelievers was to incite the Jewish tribe of Bani Quraizah, who were living in the southeastern part of the city to rebel. The Prophet had a treaty with them that in case of an attack on Madinah they would defend the city along with them. As a result, the Prophet had made no defensive arrangement in that area and had even sent Muslim families to take shelter in the forts situated on that side of the city. The invaders perceived this weakness in the defenses of the Muslim army. They sent a Jewish leader of Bani An-Nadhir to Bani Quraizah and induced them to break the treaty and join the war against the Muslims. In the beginning, they refused saying that they had a treaty with Muhammad (pbuh) who had faithfully abided by it and given them no cause for complaint. But, when Ibn Akhtab said to them, “Look, I have summoned a united force of entire Arabia against him. This is a perfect opportunity to get rid of him, if you lose it, you will never have another opportunity,” thus, the anti-Islamic mind prevailed over every moral consideration and they agreed to violate the treaty.

When the Prophet received this news, he at once asked the chiefs of the Ansăr, to go and find out the truth. He advised them that if they found Bani Quraizah still loyal to the treaty, they should return and say so openly before the Muslim army; however, if they found that they were bent upon treachery, they should only inform him so that the common Muslims would not panic. When inquired, Bani Quraizah openly told the chiefs: “There is no agreement and no treaty between us and Muhammad.” At this they returned and submitted their report to the Prophet.

After ascertaining verification, the Prophet, at that critical moment, initiated peace negotiations with the warrior tribe of Bani Ghatfăn offering them one third of the fruit harvest of Madinah in lieu of their withdrawal. But when he asked S‘ad bin Ubădah and S‘ad bin Muădh, chiefs of the Ansăr for their opinion about the conditions of peace, they asked, “O Rasool of Allah: Is it your personal wish that we should agree on these conditions, or is it Allah’s Command that we have no option but to accept it, or, are you proposing this only to save us from the enemy?” The Prophet replied, “I am proposing this only to save you: I see that the whole of Arabia has formed a united front against you. I want to divide the enemy.” At this, the two chiefs protested saying, “Your honor, if you want to conclude this pact for our sake, please forget it. These tribes could not subdue us under tribute when we were polytheists. Now that we have the honor of believing in Allah and His Rasool, will they make us sink to this depth of ignominy? Let the sword be the arbiter till Allah passes His judgement between them and us.” With these words, they tore up the draft for the treaty which had not yet been signed.

In the meantime Nu‘aim bin Mas‘ud, a member of the Ashja branch of the Ghatfăn tribe, became a Muslim and came before the Prophet and submitted, “No one as yet knows that I have embraced Islam: You can take from me whatever service you please.” The Holy Prophet replied: “Go and sow the seeds of discord among the enemy.” So, first of all, Nu‘aim went to the tribe of Quraizah with whom he was on friendly terms, and said to them, “The Qureysh and the Ghatfăn can become wearied of the siege and go back, and they will lose nothing, but you have to live here with the Muslims. Just consider what your position will be if the matter turns out that way. Therefore, I would advise you not to join the enemy until the outsiders should send some of their prominent men as hostages to you.” This had the desired effect upon the Bani Quraizah and they decided to demand hostages from the united front of the tribes. Then he went to the chiefs of the Qureysh and the Ghatfăn and said to them, “The Bani Quraizah seem to be slack and irresolute. They may demand some men as hostages from you and then hand them over to Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace) to settle their affair with him. Therefore, be very firm and cautious in your dealing with them.” This made the leaders of the united front suspicious of Bani Quraizah, and they sent them a message, saying, “We are tired of the long siege; let there be a decisive battle; let us, therefore, make a general assault simultaneously from both the sides.” The Bani Quraizah sent back the word, saying, “We cannot afford to join the war unless you hand over some of your prominent men to us as hostages.” The leaders of the united front became convinced that what Nu‘aim had said was true. They refused to send hostages. And the Bani Quraizah, on the other side, also felt that Nu‘aim had given them the correct counsel. Thus, the strategy worked: it divided the enemy against itself.

 

Victory granted by Allah without fight

The siege was prolonged for more than 25 days. It was winter, and supply of food and water and forage was becoming more and more scarce. Division in the camp was also a great strain on the state of morale of the besiegers. Then, suddenly one night, a severe windstorm accompanied by thunder and lightning hit the camp. It added to the cold and darkness. The wind blew over the tents and put the enemy in disarray. They could not withstand this severe blow of nature. They left the battleground during the night and returned to their homes. When the Muslims awoke in the morning, there was not a single enemy soldier to be seen on the battlefield. The Prophet, finding the battlefield completely empty, said: “The Qureysh will never be able to attack you after this: now you will take the offensive.” This was a correct assessment of the situation. Not only the Qureysh but the united front of all the enemy tribes had made their final assault against Islam and had failed. Now they could no longer dare invade Madinah; now the Muslims were on the offensive.
 

Raid on Bani Quraizah

When the Prophet returned from the Trench, angel Gabriel came to him in the early afternoon with the Divine Command; the Muslims should not lay aside their arms without dealing with the Bani Quraizah. On receipt of this Command, the Prophet made the announcement: “Everyone who is steadfast in obedience should not offer his 'Asr Prayer till he reaches the locality of the Bani Quraizah.” Immediately after this, he despatched Sayyidună Ali with a contingent of soldiers as vanguard towards the Quraizah. When they reached there, the Jews climbed on to their roof tops and started hurling abuses on the Prophet and the Muslims, but their invectives could not save them from the consequences of their treachery. They had committed a breach of the treaty at the most critical moment of the war, joined hands with the invaders and endangered the entire population of Madinah. When they saw the contingent of Sayyidună Ali, they thought that they had come only to overawe them. But when the whole Muslim army arrived under the command of the Prophet himself and laid siege to their quarters, they were very frightened. They could not stand the severity of the siege for more than two or three weeks. At last,they surrendered themselves to the Prophet on the condition that they would accept whatever decision Sayyidună S‘ad bin Muădh, the chief of the Aus, would give. They had accepted Sayyidună S‘ad as their judge because, in the pre-Islamic days, the Aus and the Quraizah had been confederates. They hoped that in view of their past ties, the people of the Aus also wished that Sayyidună S‘ad would treat their previous allies leniently. But Sayyidună S‘ad had just experienced and seen how the two Jewish tribes, who had been allowed to leave Madinah previously, had instigated the other tribes living around Madinah and summoned a united front of ten to twelve thousand men against the Muslims. He was also aware how treacherously this Jewish tribe had behaved on the occasion when the city was under attack threatening the safety of its entire population. He, therefore, decreed that all the male members of the Quraizah should be put to death, their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among the Muslims. The sentence was carried out. When the Muslims entered their strongholds they found that this treacherous tribe had collected 1,500 swords, 300 coats of mail, 2,000 spears and 1,500 shields in order to join the war. If Allah had not helped the Muslims, all this military equipment would have been used to attack Madinah from the rear at a time when the polytheists were making preparations for a general assault on the Muslims after crossing the Trench. After this disclosure, there remained no doubt that the decision of Sayyidună S‘ad concerning those people, was perfactly the right decision.

Social Reforms

In this Sürah, the Islamic laws pertaining to marriage and divorce were complemented; the law of inheritance was introduced, drinking and gambling were prohibited, and new laws and regulations concerning economic and social life were enacted.
 

Status of adopted children

The question concerning adoption was also addressed in this Sürah. An adopted son was regarded as their own offspring by the Arabs at that time: he was entitled to inheritance; he was treated like a real son and real brother by the adopted mother and the adopted sister; he could not marry the daughter of his adopted father or his widow after his father's death. And the same was the case if the adopted son died or divorced a wife. The adopted father regarded the woman as his real daughter-in-law. This custom clashed in every detail with the laws of marriage and divorce and inheritance enjoined by Allah in Sürahs Al-Al-Baqrah and An-Nisă'. It made a person who could get no share in inheritance, entitled to it at the expense of those who were really entitled to it. It prohibited marriage between the men and the women who could enter into the contract of marriage. And, above all, it helped spread the immoralities which the Islamic Law wanted to eradicate. For a real mother, a real sister and a real daughter cannot be like the adopted mother, the adopted sister and the adopted daughter. When artificial relations endowed with customary sanctity are allowed to mix freely like the blood relations, evil is often the result. That is why the Islamic law of marriage and divorce, the law of inheritance and the law prohibiting adultery require that the concept and custom of regarding the adopted son as a real son should be eradicated. This concept however could not be uprooted by merely passing a legal order because centuries old prejudices and superstitions could not be changed by mere word of mouth. Therefore, a little before the Battle of the Trench, the Prophet was asked by Allah to marry Sayyidah Zainab, the divorced wife of his adopted son, Zaid bin Hărithah (may Allah be pleased with him). The Holy Prophet acted on this Commandment during the siege of Bani Quraizah.
 

Defamatory remarks by the Jews, Pagans and Hypocrites

As soon as the marriage was contracted, there arose a storm of propaganda against the Prophet. The polytheists, the hypocrites and the Jews all were burning with jealousy at the Prophet's triumphs which followed one after the other. The way they had been humbled within two years after Uhud, in the Battle of the Trench, and in the affair of the Quraizah, had made them sore at heart. They had also lost hope that they could ever subdue him on the battlefield. Therefore, they seized the question of this marriage as a godsend blessing for them and thought they would put an end to his moral superiority, which was the secret of his power and success. Therefore, stories were concocted that Muhammad, God forbid, had fallen in love with his daughter-in-law, and when his son had come to know of this, he divorced his wife, and the father married his daughter-in-law. The propaganda, however, was absurd on the face of it. Sayyidah Zainab was the Prophet’s first cousin. He had known her from childhood to youth. So, there could be no question of his falling in love with her at first sight. Then he himself had arranged her marriage with Sayyidună Zaid under his personal influence, although her whole family had opposed it. They did not like that a daughter of the noble Qureysh should be given in marriage to a freed slave. Sayyidah Zainab herself was not happy at this arrangement. But everyone had to submit to the Prophet’s command. The marriage was solemnized and a precedent was set in Arabia that Islam had raised a freed slave to the status of the Qureyshite nobility. If the Prophet had in reality any desire for Sayyidah Zainab, there was no need in marrying her to Sayyidună Zaid. He himself could have married her.
 

The Laws of Hijăb

The fact that the tales invented by the enemies of Islam also became topics of conversation among the Muslims, was a clear sign that the element of sensuality in society had crossed all limits. If this malady had not existed, it was not possible that people would have paid any attention whatever to such absurd stories about such a righteous and pure person like the Prophet. This was precisely the occasion when the reformative Commandments pertaining to the law of Hijăb or Purdah were first introduced in the Islamic society. These reforms were introduced in this Sürah and complemented a year later in Sürah An-Nür, when slandering remarks were made on the honor of Sayyidah ‘Aeysha

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30 The Romans (Al-Rum) listen
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34 Sheba (Saba) listen
35 The Originator of Creation (Fatir) listen
36 Ya-Seen (Ya Seen) listen
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38 The Letter Sad (Sad) listen
39 The Groups (Az-Zumar) listen
40 The Forgiver (Ghafir) listen
41 Explained in Detail (Fussilat) listen
42 The Consultation (Ash-Shura) listen
43 Ornaments of Gold (Az-Zukruf) listen
44 The Smoke (Ad-Dukhan) listen
45 The Kneeling (Al-Jathiya) listen
46 The Curved Sand hills (Al-Ahqaf) listen
47 Muhammad (47) listen
48 The Victory (Al-Fath) listen
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50 The Letter Qaf (Qaf) listen
51 The Winds that Scatter (Az-Zariyat) listen
52 The Mount (At-Tur) listen
53 The Star (An-Najm) listen
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55 The Most Beneficent (Ar-Rahman) listen
56 The Event (Al-Waqi'a) listen
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58 She That Dispute (Al-Mujidala) listen
59 The Gathering (Al-Hashr) listen
60 The Examined One (Al-Mumtahina) listen
61 The Row (As-Saff) listen
62 Friday (Al-Jumu'ah) listen
63 The Hypocrites (Al-Munafiqoon) listen
64 Loss and Gain (At-Taghabun) listen
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67 Dominion (Al-Mulk) listen
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71 Noah (Nuh) listen
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76 Man (Al-Insan) listen
77 Those Sent Forth (Al-Mursalat) listen
78 The News (An-Naba) listen
79 Those Who Pull Out (An-Naziat) listen
80 He frowned (Abasa) listen
81 The Folding Up (At-Takwir) listen
82 The Cleaving (Al-Infitar) listen
83 Those Who Deal in Fraud (Al-Mutaffifin) listen
84 The Splitting Asunder (Al-Inshiqaq) listen
85 The Mansions of the Stars (Al-Burooj) listen
86 The Night Comer (At-Tariq) listen
87 The Most High (Al-A'la) listen
88 The Overwhelming (Al-Ghashiya) listen
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90 The City (Al-Balad) listen
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99 The Earthquake (Az-Zalzala) listen
100 The Courser (Al-Adiyat) listen
101 The Calamity (Al-Qariah) listen
102 Rivalry in world increase (At-Takathur) listen
103 The Declining Day (Al-Asr) listen
104 The Slanderer (Al-Humaza) listen
105 The Elephant (Al-Feel) listen
106 Quraish ( Quraish) listen
107 Small Kindnesses (Al-Maun) listen
108 Abundance (Al-Kawthar) listen
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110 Divine- Support (An-Nasr) listen
111 The Flame (Al-Masadd) listen
112 Sincerity (Al-Ikhlas) listen
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114 The Mankind (An-Nas) listen

 

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The Lord Complete Audio English Quran in MP3 Spoken by J.D. Hall

Translated by Malik

Audio Explanation

Now Playing # (33) The Confederates (Al-Ahzab)

(73 Verses)