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The Lord Complete Holy Book (The Quran)

in English Audio Spoken by J.D. Hall

Translated by Malik


Now Playing # (30) The Romans (Al-Rum)

(60 Verses)
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In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Alif Lăm M'ďm.[1] The Romans have been defeated (by the Persians, in Syria - A.D. 615; the Prophet Muhammad’s sympathies were with the Romans who were Christians, while the pagan Arabs were on the side of the Persians who were idol worshippers)[2] in the neighboring land, but after this defeat, they will soon be victorious[3] within a few years. The command lies with Allah in the past instance as well as in the future. On that day the believers will rejoice[4] for the victory of the Romans as well as their own victory against the pagans with the help of Allah. He helps whom He pleases and He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.[5] This is the promise of Allah and Allah never breaks His promise; but most people do not know.[6] They only know the outward show of this world’s life, but they are heedless about the life to come.[7] Have they not considered in their own minds that Allah created the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them for a just reason and for a specified time? But the truth is that many among mankind do not believe in the meeting with their Rabb (the Day of Resurrection)![8] Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what was the end of those before them? They were superior in strength than these; they tilled the soil and built on it more than these have ever built. There came to them their Rasools with clear signs (but they rejected them to the detriment of their own destruction): it was not Allah Who wronged them, but they wronged their own souls.[9] Evil was the outcome for those who committed evil, rejected the revelations of Allah and kept ridiculing them![10]


The Roman's (Christians') defeat at the hands of the Persian (Pagans) was taken as a sign of the Muslims' defeat at the hands of Arab unbelievers, so Allah gave good tidings for the Roman victory as well as the Muslim victory in a few years

It is Allah Who originates creation; then repeats it, and then to Him you shall be brought back.[11] On the Day when the Hour of Judgement will be established, the criminals shall be in despair.[12] None of their shorakă' (gods which they had set up besides Allah), will be there to intercede for them and they themselves will disown their shorakă'.[13] On that Day when the Hour of Judgement will be established, mankind will be sorted out.[14] Those who have embraced the faith and have done good deeds shall be made happy in a garden of paradise.[15] And those who have rejected Faith, denied Our revelations and the meeting of the hereafter shall be presented for punishment.[16] Therefore, glorify Allah in the evening and in the morning[17] - all praise is due to Him in the heavens and the earth - so glorify Him in the late afternoon and when the day begins to decline.[18] He brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living, and gives life to the earth after its death. Likewise you shall be brought forth to life after your death.[19]


It is Allah Who originates creation and then repeats it and to Him everyone will be brought for the final Judgement

Of His signs, one is that He created you from dust; and then behold you men are scattered throughout the earth.[20] And of His signs, another one is that He created for you mates from among yourselves that you may find comfort with them, and He planted love and kindness in your hearts; surely there are signs in this for those who think about it.[21] And yet others of His signs are the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors; surely there are signs in this for the knowledgeable.[22] And among His signs is your sleep at night and quest for His bounty during the day; surely there are signs in this for those who pay heed.[23] And of His signs is the showing of lightning, in which there is fear as well as hope, and He sends down rainwater from the sky and with it gives life to the earth after its death; surely there are signs in this for those who use their common sense.[24] And of His signs are the firmly standing heaven and earth by His command; then as soon as He will summon you out of the earth, you shall come forth at one call.[25] To Him belongs everything that is in the heavens and the earth; all are obedient to Him.[26] He it is Who originates creation, then repeats it; and it is easy for Him. To Him belongs the highest similitude in the heavens and the earth, and He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.[27]


The creation of man, his consort, heavens, earth, language, colors, sleep, quest for work, lightning, rain and growth of vegetation - all are signs of Allah

We give you an example from your own lives. Do you let your slaves be equal partners in the wealth which We have given you? Do you fear them as you fear each other? Thus do We spell out Our revelations for those who use their common sense.[28] Nay! The wrongdoers are led by their own desires, without real knowledge. So who can guide those whom Allah leaves astray? They will have no helpers.[29] Therefore, stand firm in your devotion to the upright faith - the nature made by Allah, the one on which mankind is created - and the laws of Nature ordained by Allah cannot be changed. That is the standard of true faith, but most among mankind do not know.[30] Turn in repentance to Him, fear Him, establish Salah (regular five times daily prayers) and do not be of the mushrikďn[31] - those who divide their religion into sects and become separate groups, each group rejoicing in its own circle.[32]


The wrongdoers are led by their own desires without real knowledge

True faith and the nature of sects

When an affliction befalls the people, they turn in prayer to their Rabb in repentance. But when He let them taste a blessing from Him, lo! Some of them start committing shirk,[33] showing no gratitude for What We have given them. Enjoy yourselves; soon you will find out your folly.[34] Have We sent down to them an authority, that speaks of the shirk which they are committing?[35] When We give mankind a taste of blessing, they rejoice, but when some evil afflicts them because of their own misdeeds, lo! They are in despair.[36] Do they not see that it is Allah Who gives abundantly to whom He pleases and sparingly to whom He wills? Surely there are signs in this example for those who believe.[37]


When an affliction befalls people they call upon Allah, but when He relieves them, lo! They start committing shirk

O believers, give what is due to your relatives, the needy and the traveller in need. That is best for those who seek the pleasure of Allah and it is they who will attain felicity.[38] That usury which you give to increase the wealth of people, does not increase with Allah: but the Zakah that you give to seek the pleasure of Allah, shall be repaid to you many times over.[39] It is Allah Who has created you, then provides you your daily bread, then He causes you to die, and then He will bring you back to life. Is there any of your shorakă' (associates you have set up besides Allah) who can do any of these things? Glory be to Him, and exalted be He above the shirk these people commit.[40]


Commandment to give ones relatives their due and likewise to the poor and the travellers in need

Mischief (war between Roman and Persian empires) has appeared in the land and the sea in consequence of man’s own misdeeds. Through such wars Allah let people taste the fruit of their deeds, so that they may turn back from evil.[41] O Prophet, tell them: “Travel through the earth and see what was the end of those who have passed away before you: most of them were mushrikďn (worshipped other gods besides Allah).”[42] Therefore stand firm in your devotion to the true faith before that Day arrives on which there will be no chance of averting from Allah. On that Day, they shall be divided in two groups.[43] Those who disbelieved will bear the burden of their disbelief, and those who have done good deeds will be made ready for their home in paradise,[44] so that He may, out of His mercy, reward those who have believed and done good deeds. Surely He does not like the disbelievers.[45]


Mischief in the land is the result of Man's own misdeeds. That is how Allah let them taste the fruit of their deeds

Of His signs is that He sends the winds as bearers of good news, and that He may let you taste His blessing, and your ships may sail by His command, and that you may seek of His bounty, and that you may be grateful.[46] We sent before you Rasools to their respective people, and they brought them clear signs. Some rejected them while others believed, then We subjected the guilty ones to Our retribution and We aided the believers - it is due on Us to help the Believers.[47] It is Allah Who sends the winds to raise the clouds, then He spreads them in the sky and breaks them into fragments as He pleases, then you see raindrops falling from their midst. When He showers this rain upon those of His servants whom He pleases, lo! They are filled with joy,[48] though before its coming they may have lost all hope.[49] Just look at the traces of Allah’s Mercy! How He gives life to the earth after its death. Surely the same way He will give life to the dead; for He has power over all things.[50] And if We send a wind which turns their crops yellow, behold they will become even more firm in their disbelief.[51] O Prophet, you cannot make the dead hear you, nor can you make the deaf hear your call especially when they have turned their backs and are running away;[52] nor can you guide the blind out of their error. None will hear you save those who believe in Our revelations and submit themselves as Muslims.[53]


Allah sent His Rasools for the guidance of people; some believed while others rejected, Allah subjected the guilty to His retribution and helped the Believers

It is Allah Who has created you in a state of helplessness as a baby, then gave you strength to come out of helplessness in youth, then after strength again helplessness and grey hair in old age. He creates whatever He wills and it is He Who is the All-knowing, the Almighty.[54] On the Day when the Hour of Judgement will be established, the criminals will swear that they did not stay in this world more than an hour; thus are they ever deluded.[55] But those who are given knowledge and faith will say: “In fact you have stayed, according to the Book of Allah, till the Day of Resurrection and this is the Day of Resurrection: but you were not aware."[56] On that Day, no excuse of theirs will avail the wrongdoers, nor will they be allowed to seek forgiveness.[57] The fact is that We have set forth every kind of example for men in this Qur’an, but whatever sign you may bring, the unbelievers are sure to say: “You are preaching falsehood."[58] Thus Allah has set a seal on the hearts of those who do not use their common sense.[59] So O Prophet, have patience: surely the promise of Allah is true; and do not let those, who themselves have no certainty of faith, shake your firmness.[60]


O Prophet, you cannot make the dead to hear you

It is Allah Who has created you and shall bring you to justice on the Day of Judgement

Major Issues, Divine Law and Guidance:

* The Roman’s (Christian’s) defeat at the hands of Persians (pagans) was considered by Makkans a sign of the Muslim’s defeat at the hands of Arab unbelievers.
* Prophecy of the Roman's victory against Persians and the Muslims victory against the disbelievers.
* Allah has originated the creation and He will resurrect the dead for final judgement.
* Creation of Man, his Consort, Heaven, Earth, Language, Colors, Sleep, Quest for work, Lightning, Rain and Growth of vegetation - all are signs from Allah.
* Wrongdoers are those who are led by their own desires without real knowledge.
* True Faith vs. Sects and shirk.
* Commandment to give relatives their due and take care of the poor and travellers in need.
* Mischief in the land is due to Man’s own misdeeds.
* Allah tells the Prophet: "O Prophet! You can not make the dead hear you."

Condition of Human Society at that time:

The prediction made in the initial verses of this Sürah is one of the most outstanding evidences of the Qur'an being the Word of Allah. Research scholar Abul A'lă Maudüdi narrated the historical background relevant to this Sürah as follows:

“Eight years before the Prophet’s advent as a Prophet, the Byzantine Emperor Maurice was overthrown by Phocus, who captured the throne and became king. Phocus first had the Emperor’s five sons executed in front of him, and then had the Emperor killed and hung their heads in a thoroughfare in Constantinople. A few days after this, he had the empress and her three daughters also put to death. The event provided Khusrau Parvez, the Sassăni king of Persia; a good moral excuse to attack Byzantine. Emperor Maurice had been his benefactor; with his help he had got the throne of Persia. Therefore, he declared that he would avenge his godfather’s and his children’s murder upon Phocus, the usurper. So, he started a war against the Byzantines in 603 CE and within a few years, putting the Phocus armies to rout in succession, he reached Edessa (modern, Urfa) in Asia Minor, on the one front, and Aleppo and Antioch in Syria, on the other. When the Byzantine ministers saw that Phocus could not save the country, they sought the African governor’s help, who sent his son, Hercules, to Constantinople with a strong fleet. Phocus was immediately deposed and Hercules was made emperor. He treated Phocus as he had treated Maurice. This happened in 610 CE, the year the Prophet was appointed to the Prophethood.

The moral excuse for which Khusrau Parvez had started the war was no more valid after the deposition and death of Phocus. Had the object of his war really been to avenge the murder of his ally on Phocus for his cruelty, he would have come to terms with the new Emperor after the death of Phocus. But he continued the war, and gave it the color of a crusade between Zoroastrianism and Christianity. The sympathies of the Christian sects (i. e. Nestorians and Jacobians, etc.) which had been excommunicated by the Roman ecclesiastical authority and tyrannized for years also went with the Magian (Zoroastrian) invaders, and the Jews also joined hands with them; so much so that the number of Jews who enlisted in Khusrau’s army rose to 26,000.

Hercules could not stop this storm. The very first news that he received from the East after ascending the throne was that of the Persian's occupation of Antioch. After this, Damascus fell in 613 CE. Then in 614 , the Persians occupying Jerusalem, played havoc with the Christian world. Ninety thousand Christians were massacred and the Holy Sepulchre was desecrated. The Original Cross on which, according to Christian beliefs, Jesus had died, was seized and carried to Mada’in. The chief priest Zacharia was taken prisoner and all the important churches of the city were destroyed. How puffed up was Khusrau Parvez at this victory can be judged from the letter that he wrote to Hercules from Jerusalem. He wrote: "From Khusrau, the greatest of all gods, the master of the whole world : To Hercules, his most wretched and most stupid servant: ‘You say that you have trust in your Lord. Why didn’t then your Lord save Jerusalem from me?"

Within a year after this victory, the Persian armies overran Jordan, Palestine and the whole of the Sinai Peninsula and reached the frontiers of Egypt. In those very days, another conflict of a far greater historical consequence was going on in Makkah. The believers in One God, under the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace be upon him), were fighting for their existence against the followers of shirk under the command of the chiefs of the Qureysh, and the conflict had reached such a stage that in 615 CE, a substantial number of the Muslims had to leave their homes and take refuge with the Christian kingdom of Habasha, which was an ally of the Byzantine Empire. In those days the Sassăni victories against Byzantine were the talk of the town, and the pagans of Makkah were delighted and were taunting the Muslims to the effect: “Look the fire worshippers of Persia are winning victories and the Christian believers in Revelation and Prophethood are being routed everywhere. Likewise, we, the idol worshippers of Arabia, will exterminate you and your religion.”

These were the conditions when this Sürah of the Qur'an was sent down, and in it a prediction was made, saying: ”The Romans have been vanquished in the neighboring land and within a few years after their defeat, they shall be victorious. And it will be the day when the believers will rejoice in the victory granted by Allah.” It contained not one but two predictions: First, the Romans shall be Victorious; and second, the Muslims also shall win a victory at the same time. Apparently, there was not a remote chance of the fulfillment of either prediction in the next few years. On the one hand, there were a handful of the Muslims, who were being beaten and tortured in Makkah, and even till eight years after this prediction there appeared no chance of their victory and domination. On the contrary, the Romans were losing more and more ground every next day. By 619 CE the whole of Egypt had passed into Sassăni hands and the Magian armies had reached as far as Tripoli. In Asia Minor they beat and pushed back the Romans to Bosporus, and in 617 CE they captured Chalcedony (modern, Kadikoy) just opposite Constantinople. The Emperor sent an envoy to Khusrau, praying that he was ready to have peace on any terms, but he replied, “I shall not give protection to the emperor until he is brought in chains before me and gives up obedience to his crucified god and adopts submission to the fire god.” At last, the Emperor became so depressed by defeat that he decided to leave Constantinople and shift to Carthage (modern, Tünis). In short, as the British historian Gibbon says, even seven to eight years after this prediction of the Qur'an, the conditions were such that no one could even imagine that the Byzantine Empire would ever gain an upper hand over Persia, not to speak of gaining domination. No one could hope that the Empire, under the circumstances, would even survive.

When these verses of the Qur'an were sent down, the disbelievers of Makkah made great fun of them, and Ubayy bin Khalaf bet Sayyidună Abu Bakr ten camels that the Romans would not be victorious within three years. When the Prophet came to know of the bet, he said, “The Qur'an has used the words bid-i-sinďn, and the word bid in Arabic applies to a number up to ten. Therefore, make the bet for ten years and increase the number of camels to a hundred.” So, Sayyidună Abu Bakr spoke to Ubayy again and bet a hundred camels for ten years.

In 622 CE, when the Prophet migrated to Madinah, the Emperor Hercules set off quietly for Trabzon from Constantinople via the Black Sea and started preparations to attack Persia from rear. For this he asked the Church for money, and Pope Sergius lent him the Church collections on interest, in a bid to save Christianity from Zoroastrianism. Hercules started his counter attack in 623 CE from Armenia. Next year, in 624 CE, he entered Azerbaijăn and destroyed Clorumia, the birthplace of Zoroaster, and ravaged the principal fire temple of Persia. Great are the powers of Allah, this was the very year when the Muslims achieved a decisive victory at Badr for the first time against the mushrikďn. Thus, both the predictions made in Sürah Rum were fulfilled simultaneously within the stipulated period of ten years.

The Byzantine forces continued to press the Persians hard and in the decisive battle at Nineveh, (627 CE) they dealt them the hardest blow. They captured the royal residence of Dast-Gerd, and then pressing forward, reached right opposite to Ctesiphon, which was the capital of Persia in those days. In 628 CE, in an internal revolt, Khusrau Parvez was imprisoned and 18 of his sons were executed in front of him and a few days later, he himself died in prison. This was the year when the peace treaty of Hudeybiyah was concluded, which the Qur'an has termed as “the supreme victory,” and in this very year Khusrau’s son, Qubăd II, gave up all the occupied Roman territories, restored the True Cross and made peace with Byzantine. In 628 CE, the Emperor himself went to Jerusalem to instal the “Cross” in its place, and in the same year the Prophet entered Makkah for the first time after the Hijrah to perform the Umra-tul-Q'adah.

After this, no one could have any doubt about the truth of the prophecy of the Qur'an, with the result that most of the Arab polytheists accepted Islam. The heirs of Ubayy bin Khalaf lost their bet and had to give a hundred camels to Sayyidună Abu Bakr Siddďq. He took them before the Prophet, who ordered that they be given away in charity, because the bet had been made at a time when gambling had not yet been forbidden by the Shari‘ah; but now it had been forbidden. Therefore, the bet was allowed to be accepted from the belligerent disbelievers, but instruction given that it should be given away in charity and should not be brought in personal use.”

No Chapter (Surah) Listen
1 The Opening (Al-Fatiha) listen
2 The Cow (Al-Baqrah) listen
3 The Family of Imran (Aal-Imran) listen
4 The Women (An-Nisah) listen
5 The Table (Al-Maeda) listen
6 The Cattle (Al-An'aam) listen
7 The Heights (Al-A'raf) listen
8 The Spoils of War (Al-Anfal) listen
9 The Repentance(At-Tawba) listen
10 Jonah (Yunus) listen
11 The Prophet Hud (Hud) listen
12 Joseph (Yusuf) listen
13 The Thunder (Al-Ra'd) listen
14 Abraham (Imbrahim) listen
15 The Rocky Tract(Al-Hijr) listen
16 The Bees (An-Nahl) listen
17 The Night Journey (Al-Isra) listen
18 The Cave (Al-Kahf) listen
19 Mary (Maryam) listen
20 Ta-Ha (Ta-Ha) listen
21 The Prophets (Al-Anbiya) listen
22 The Pilgrimage (Al-Hajj) listen
23 The Believers (Al-Muminun) listen
24 The Light (An-Nour) listen
25 The Criterion (Al-Furqan) listen
26 The Poets (Ash-Shu'ara) listen
27 The Ants (An-Naml) listen
28 The Narration (Al-Qasas) listen
29 The Spider (Al-Ankaboot) listen
30 The Romans (Al-Rum) listen
31 Luqman (Luqman) listen
32 The Prostration (As-Sajda) listen
33 The Confederates (Al-Ahzab) listen
34 Sheba (Saba) listen
35 The Originator of Creation (Fatir) listen
36 Ya-Seen (Ya Seen) listen
37 The Rangers (As-Saffat) listen
38 The Letter Sad (Sad) listen
39 The Groups (Az-Zumar) listen
40 The Forgiver (Ghafir) listen
41 Explained in Detail (Fussilat) listen
42 The Consultation (Ash-Shura) listen
43 Ornaments of Gold (Az-Zukruf) listen
44 The Smoke (Ad-Dukhan) listen
45 The Kneeling (Al-Jathiya) listen
46 The Curved Sand hills (Al-Ahqaf) listen
47 Muhammad (47) listen
48 The Victory (Al-Fath) listen
49 The Dwellings (Al-Hujurat) listen
50 The Letter Qaf (Qaf) listen
51 The Winds that Scatter (Az-Zariyat) listen
52 The Mount (At-Tur) listen
53 The Star (An-Najm) listen
54 The Moon (Al-Qamar) listen
55 The Most Beneficent (Ar-Rahman) listen
56 The Event (Al-Waqi'a) listen
57 The Iron (Al-Hadid) listen
58 She That Dispute (Al-Mujidala) listen
59 The Gathering (Al-Hashr) listen
60 The Examined One (Al-Mumtahina) listen
61 The Row (As-Saff) listen
62 Friday (Al-Jumu'ah) listen
63 The Hypocrites (Al-Munafiqoon) listen
64 Loss and Gain (At-Taghabun) listen
65 The Divorce (At-Talaq) listen
66 Prohibition (At-Tahreem) listen
67 Dominion (Al-Mulk) listen
68 The Pen (Al-Qalam) listen
69 The Reality (Al-Haaqqa) listen
70 The Ways of Ascent (Al-Ma'arij) listen
71 Noah (Nuh) listen
72 The Jinn (Al-Jinn) listen
73 The Enshrouded One (Al-Muzzammil) listen
74 The Cloaked One (Al-Muddathir) listen
75 The-Resurrection (Al-Qiyamah) listen
76 Man (Al-Insan) listen
77 Those Sent Forth (Al-Mursalat) listen
78 The News (An-Naba) listen
79 Those Who Pull Out (An-Naziat) listen
80 He frowned (Abasa) listen
81 The Folding Up (At-Takwir) listen
82 The Cleaving (Al-Infitar) listen
83 Those Who Deal in Fraud (Al-Mutaffifin) listen
84 The Splitting Asunder (Al-Inshiqaq) listen
85 The Mansions of the Stars (Al-Burooj) listen
86 The Night Comer (At-Tariq) listen
87 The Most High (Al-A'la) listen
88 The Overwhelming (Al-Ghashiya) listen
89 The Dawn (Al-Fajr) listen
90 The City (Al-Balad) listen
91 The Sun (Ash-Shams) listen
92 The Night (Al-Layl) listen
93 The Morning Hours (Ad-Dhuha) listen
94 Relief  (Al-Inshirah) listen
95 The Figs (At-Teen) listen
96 The Clot (Al-Alaq) listen
97 The Night of Decree (Al-Qadr) listen
98 The Clear Proof (Al-Bayyina) listen
99 The Earthquake (Az-Zalzala) listen
100 The Courser (Al-Adiyat) listen
101 The Calamity (Al-Qariah) listen
102 Rivalry in world increase (At-Takathur) listen
103 The Declining Day (Al-Asr) listen
104 The Slanderer (Al-Humaza) listen
105 The Elephant (Al-Feel) listen
106 Quraish ( Quraish) listen
107 Small Kindnesses (Al-Maun) listen
108 Abundance (Al-Kawthar) listen
109 The Disbelievers (Al-Kafiroon) listen
110 Divine- Support (An-Nasr) listen
111 The Flame (Al-Masadd) listen
112 Sincerity (Al-Ikhlas) listen
113 The Daybreak (Al-Falaq) listen
114 The Mankind (An-Nas) listen


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The Lord Complete Audio English Quran in MP3 Spoken by J.D. Hall

Translated by Malik

Audio Explanation

Now Playing # (30) The Romans (Al-Rum) (60 Verses)