In the name
of Allah, The Compassionate, The Merciful
Alif L'ăm M'ďm. This is the Book in which there is no doubt.
(Since its Author, Allah, the Creator of this universe,
possesses complete knowledge, there is no room for doubt about
its contents.) It is a guide for those who are God
conscious, who believe in the Unseen, who establish Salah
(five regular daily prayers) and spend in charity out of
what We have provided for their sustenance; who believe in
this Revelation (the Qur'an) which is sent to you (O
Muhammad) and the Revelations which were sent before you
(Torah, Psalms, Gospel...) and firmly believe in the
Hereafter. They are on true Guidance from their Rabb and they
are the ones who will attain salvation.
Al-Qur'an is free from all doubts
It is a guide for the God-conscious
In fact, as for those who reject Faith; it is
the same, whether you warn them or you don't, they will not
believe. Allah has sealed their hearts and their hearing,
their eyes are covered, and there is a grievous punishment for
Warning is of no avail for those who reject faith
There are some people who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last
Day” yet they are not true believers. They try to
deceive Allah and the believers. However, they deceive none
except themselves yet they do not realize it. There is a
disease of deception in their heart; and Allah lets their
disease increase, and they shall have painful punishment for the
lies they have told. When it is said to them: “Do not make
mischief on earth,” they say: “We make peace.” Beware! They
are the ones who make mischief but they do not realize it.
When they are told: “Believe as the others believe” they
sarcastically ask: “Should we believe like fools?” Be aware!
They themselves are the fools, if only they could
understand. When they meet the believers they say: “We are
believers,” but when they are alone with their shaităns, they
say: “We are really with you, we were only mocking the
believers.” Allah will throw back their mockery on them
and leave them alone in their trespasses; so they wander to and
fro like the blind.
These are the people who barter guidance for error: but their
bargain is profitless and they are not going to be guided.
Hypocrites and consequences of hypocrisy
Their example is that of a man who kindled a
fire; when it illuminated all around him Allah took away their
light (their eyesight) and left them in utter darkness:
they could see nothing. Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will
never return to the Right Way. Or another example is that of
a dark storm-cloud in the sky charged with thunder and
lightning. They press their fingers to their ears at the sound
of each stunning thunderclap for fear of death: Allah is
encircling the unbelievers from all sides. The lightning
terrifies them as if it was going to snatch away their
eyesight; whenever it flashes they walk on; when it becomes
dark, they stand still. And if Allah wanted He could have
totally taken away their hearing and their sight; for Allah has
power over everything.
Examples of their deeds
O mankind! Worship your Rabb Who created you and created those
who came before you; by doing this you may expect to guard
yourself against evil. It is He Who has made the earth a
floor for you and the sky a canopy; and it is He Who sends down
rain from the sky for the growth of fruits for your sustenance.
Therefore, do not knowingly set up rivals to Allah.
Allah's demand to worship Him Alone
If you are in doubt as to whether the
revelations which We have sent to Our servant (Muhammad)
are from Us or not, then produce one Sürah like this; and call
your witnesses (gods that you call upon) besides Allah to
assist you, if you are right in your claim. But if you are
unable to do so, and you can never do so, then fear the Hell
fire, whose fuel is men and stones which is prepared for the
The claim of The Qur'an to be the Book of Allah
Give glad tidings to those who believe in
this Book and do good deeds in accordance with its
teachings that for them there will be Gardens beneath which
rivers flow. Whenever they will be given fruits to eat they will
say: "This is similar to the one we used to eat before on
earth," for they will be provided fruits which will resemble
the fruits on the earth for their easy identification and
enjoyment; and for them there will be chaste virgin spouses,
and they shall live therein for ever.
Reward for the believer
Allah does not mind using the similitude of a
gnat or an even more insignificant creature to teach a lesson.
Those who believe, know that it is the truth from their Rabb;
but the unbelievers say: “What does Allah mean by such a
similitude?” By such a similitude Allah confounds many and
enlightens many. He confounds none except the transgressors:
those who break Allah’s Covenant after accepting it, and who cut
aside what Allah has ordered to be united and cause mischief on
earth. It is they who are the losers.
Parable of gnat may confound
many and enlighten many
How can you deny Allah? Did He not give you
life when you were lifeless; and will He not cause you to die
and again bring you to life; and will you not ultimately return
to Him ? It is He Who has created for you all that there is
in the earth; and directed Himself towards the sky and fashioned
it into seven heavens. He has perfect knowledge of
can you deny Allah?
Note that occasion, when your Rabb said to the angels: I
am going to place a vicegerent on earth. They said: "Will You
place there one who will make mischief and shed blood while we
sing Your praises and glorify Your name?" Allah said: "I
know what you know not."
Story of Adam's creation
He taught Adam the names of all things; then
He presented the things to the angels and said: "Tell Me the
names of these if what you say is true?" (Allah did this to
show Adam’s special qualities of learning and memory).
"Glory to You," they replied, "we have no knowledge except what
You have taught us: in fact You are the One who is perfect in
knowledge and wisdom." Allah said: "O Adam! Tell them
the names." When Adam told them the names, Allah said:
"Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of the heavens and
the earth and I know what you reveal and what you conceal?"
Victory of knowledge
When We ordered the angels: "Prostrate before
Adam in respect," they all prostrated except Iblees (Shaităn)
who refused in his arrogance and became a disbeliever. To
Adam We said: "Dwell with your wife in Paradise and eat
anything you want from its bountiful food from wherever you
wish, but do not approach this tree, or you shall both become
Angels show respect to Adam
But Shaităn tempted them with the tree to
disobey Allah’s commandment and caused them to be expelled
from Paradise, and We said: "Get out from here, some of you
being enemies to others, and there is for you in the earth an
abode and provisions for a specified period."
Shaităn caused Adam to lose paradise
Then Adam received appropriate words from his
Rabb and repented, and Allah accepted his
repentance. Surely He is the Acceptor of Repentance, the
Adam's repentance and his forgiveness
"Get down from here all of you," We said
at the time of Adam’s departure from Paradise. "Henceforth
there shall come to you guidance from Me, those who accept and
follow it shall have nothing to fear or to regret. But those
who reject and defy Our revelations will be inmates of Hellfire,
wherein they shall live forever."
Need of Allah's revelations for guidance
O children of Israel! Remember My favors which I bestowed upon
you; fulfill your covenant (firm commitment) with Me and
I will fulfill My covenant with you, that you should fear none
but Me. Believe in My revelations, which are confirming your
scriptures; do not be the first one to deny My revelations, and
do not sell them for a petty price, fear Me and Me Alone. Do
not mix the Truth with falsehood, or knowingly conceal the
truth. Establish Salah (prayers); give Zakah (charity);
and bow down with those who bow down in worship.
Allah's covenants with the Children of Israel
Would you ask others to be righteous and
forget to practice it yourselves? Even though you read your Holy
Book? Have you no sense? 
you advise others and forget yourselves?
Seek Allah’s help with patience and Salah; it
is indeed hard to be patient and punctual in offering Salah
except for those who fear Allah, who are certain in their
mind that they are going to meet their Rabb and that they are
going to return to Him for final judgment.
Allah's help comes with patience and Salah
O’ Children of Israel! Remember My favors which I bestowed upon
You; that I exalted you above all other nations. Guard
yourselves against the Day on which one soul shall not avail
another - no intercession shall be accepted, no ransom shall be
taken and no help shall be given.
Criminals will find no way out on the Day of Judgment
Remember how We delivered you from the people
of Fir‘on (Pharaoh): they had subjected you to severe
torment, killing your sons and sparing your daughters; you were
facing a tremendous trial from your Rabb. And We parted the
Red Sea for you, taking you to safety, and drowned
Fir'on’s people before your very eyes.
Israelites deliverance from Pharaoh's persecution
Remember when We communed with Musa (Moses)
for forty nights and in his absence you took the calf
for worship, thus committing a wicked transgression.
Even then We forgave you, so that you might become grateful.
Israelites sin of worshipping the calf
We gave Musa (Moses) the Holy Book (Torah)
and the criterion of right and wrong so that you might be
rightly guided. Remember when Musa returned with the
Divine Book, he said to his people: “O my people! You have
indeed grievously wronged yourselves by taking the calf for
worship; so turn in repentance to your Creator and slay the
culprits among you; that will be best for you in His sight." He
accepted your repentance; surely He is the Forgiving, the
Their repentance through slaying the culprits
Remember when you said: "O Musa! We shall
never believe you until we see Allah with our own eyes," a
thunderbolt struck you while you were looking on and you fell
dead. Then We raised you up after your death; so that you
might be grateful. And We even provided you the shade of
clouds and sent down to you manna (sweet dish) and salva
(quail meat) saying: "Eat of the good things We have
provided for you;" in spite of these favors your forefathers
violated our commandments. However, by violating our
commandments they did not harm Us, but they harmed their own
Israelites who wanted to see Allah directly were put to death,
then Allah gave them life again and provided them with heavenly
Remember when We said: "Enter this town and
eat whatever you wish to your heart's content; make your way
through the gates, with humility saying; ‘we repent.' We shall
forgive you your sins and We shall increase the provisions for
the righteous among you. But the wrongdoers changed Our
Words from that which they were asked to say, so We sent down a
scourge from heaven as a punishment for their transgression.
Israelites discontent and disbelief
Remember the time when Musa (Moses) prayed for water for
his people; We said: "Strike the rock with your staff."
Thereupon twelve springs came out of it. Each tribe was assigned
its own drinking-place. Then they were commanded: "Eat
and drink of what Allah has provided and do not create mischief
in the land."
The miracle of providing water from a rock
Remember when you said: "O Musa (Moses)!
We cannot endure one kind of food; call on your Rabb to give us
a variety of food which the earth produces, such as
green-herbs, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, and onions." ‘What?’
Musa asked. ‘Would you exchange the better for the worse? If
that’s what you want, go back to some city; there you will
find what you have asked for. Gradually they became so degraded
that shame and misery were brought upon them and they drew upon
themselves the wrath of Allah; this was because they went on
rejecting the commandments of Allah and killed His prophets
unjustly, furthermore, it was the consequence of their
disobedience and transgression.
Israelites rejected the heavenly food
Israelites disobedience and transgression
Rest assured that Believers (Muslims), Jews, Christians
and Sabians - whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and
performs good deeds - will be rewarded by their Rabb; they will
have nothing to fear or to regret.
Real believers have nothing to fear or to regret
Remember O Children of Israel when We
took a covenant from you and when We lifted the Mount (Tür)
over your heads saying: "Hold firmly to what We have given you (Torah)
and follow the commandments therein, so that you may guard
yourself against evil." But even after that you backed out;
if there would not have been the Grace and Mercy of Allah upon
you, you surely would have been among the losers.
Israelites covenant with Allah
You very well know the story of those of you
who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath; We ordered them:
"Be detested apes". Thus, We made their fate an example to
their own people and to succeeding generations, and a lesson to
those who are God-conscious.
Punishment for the violation of Sabbath
Remember the incident when Musa (Moses)
said to his people: "Allah commands you to sacrifice a cow,"
they replied, "do you ridicule us?" Musa answered, "I seek the
protection of Allah from being one of the ignorant."
"Request your Rabb," they said, "to give us some details of that
cow." Musa replied: "Allah says, the cow should neither be too
old nor too young but of middle age;" do, therefore, what you
are commanded! "Request your Rabb again" they said, "to
clarify for us her color." Musa replied: "Allah says, the said
cow should be of a rich and deep yellow color pleasing to the
eyes." Again they said: "Request your Rabb to clarify for us
the exact type of cow she should be, for to us all cows look
alike; if Allah wills, we shall be rightly guided." Musa
replied: "Allah says, the said cow should have neither been used
to till the soil nor water the fields; a healthy one free from
any blemish." "Now you have brought us the accurate
description," they said. Then they slaughtered her, after they
had nearly declined.
Israelites attitude in sacrificing a cow on Allah's command
And remember the incident when you killed a man and started
disputing as to who killed him, Allah made it known what you
concealed. So We said: "Strike the dead body with a piece of
the slaughtered cow." That’s how Allah brought the dead
to life to show you His Signs so that you may understand His
power to restore life. But even after seeing that your
hearts became hard like a rock or even harder, for there are
some rocks from which rivers gush out, and there are some which
break asunder and water comes out of them, and there are some
which fall down with the fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware
of what you do.
Miracle of bringing the dead body back to life
The Israelites reaction to the miracle
Do you, O Believers, still hope that
they (people of the Book) will believe in what you say,
when some of them have already heard the word of Allah and
perverted it knowingly after they understood it? When they
meet the believers (Muslims) they say: "We too are
believers," but when they (people of the Book) meet each
other in private, they say: "Would you disclose to the believers
(Muslims) what Allah has revealed to you? So that they (Muslims)
may use it as an argument against you in the court of your Rabb?
Have you no sense?" Do they not really know that Allah knows
what they conceal and what they reveal?
People of the Book are hopeless victims of hypocrisy
Among them there are some illiterates who do
not know their Holy Book; they follow their own desires and do
nothing but conjecture. Woe to those who write the Book with
their own hands and then say: "This is from Allah," so that they
may sell it for a petty price! Woe to them for what their hands
have written and woe to them for what they have earned.
them there are some who attribute their own writings to Allah
The Jews say: "The fire shall not
touch us except for a few days." Ask them: “Have you obtained
such a promise from Allah which He would not break ? Or do you
assert against Allah what you do not know?" Yea! Those who
commit evil and become encircled in sin are the inmates of
Hellfire; they shall live there for ever. As for those who
believe and do good deeds, they will be the residents of
Paradise and live there forever.
false claim and its punishment
Remember, We took a covenant (firm commitment) from the
children of Israel: "You shall worship none but Allah; be good
to your parents, relatives, orphans and destitute, speak fair to
the people, establish 'Salah', and pay 'Zakah.'" But you broke
the covenant, except a few of you, and you paid no heed.
Israelites made a covenant and broke it
Also remember another covenant which We took
from you: That you shall not shed blood among yourselves and you
shall not expel your own people from your homes; you confirmed
it and you are witness to it. Yet there you are, killing
your own people, expelling a group amongst you from their homes,
backing each other with sin and aggression; and if they come to
you as captives, you trade them for ransoms whereas their
expulsion was unlawful for you to begin with. Do you believe in
a part of your Holy Book and reject the rest? So what other
punishment do such people among you, who behave like this,
deserve, than disgrace in this world and to be driven to
grievous punishment on the Day of Judgment? Allah is not unaware
of what you do. Such are the people who trade the life of
this world at the expense of the Hereafter; so neither their
punishment shall be lightened nor shall they be helped.
Their behavior with their own people
To Musa (Moses) We gave the Book (Torah) and sent
after him other Rasools in succession; then We gave Isa (Jesus),
the son of Maryam (Mary), clear Signs and strengthened
him with the Holy Spirit (Gabriel). Why is it that
whenever there came to you a Rasool with a message which did not
suit your desires, you became so arrogant that to some of them
you called impostors and others you killed! They say: "Our
hearts are in secure wrappers;" but the fact of the matter is
that Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so little is
that which they believe.
Advent of the Prophet Isa (Jesus)
Now when there has come to them a Book from
Allah confirming the Holy Books of Torah and Gospel which
they already have - even though before this they used to pray
for victory against the unbelievers - when there came to them
that which they very well recognize, they knowingly
rejected it; Allah’s curse is on such disbelievers.
Ridiculous is the price for which they have sold away their
souls, that they deny Allah’s revelation merely because of their
grudge, that Allah should send His grace only (on an
Israelite rather than) on whom He pleases from His servants
(Muhammad)! They have drawn on themselves wrath upon
wrath, and for such disbelievers there is a disgraceful
Jews rejected the truth knowingly
When they are asked to believe in what Allah
has revealed, they reply: "We only believe in what Allah has
sent to us (Torah), and we reject what is beside that,"
while it is the truth confirming their own scriptures! Well, ask
them, "If you sincerely believe in what was sent to you , why
did you kill the Prophets of Allah who were sent to you from
amongst yourselves before?" Musa (Moses) came to
you with clear Signs, no sooner was he away from you, than you
committed evil by worshipping the calf.
Nature of the Jews' belief
Remember when We took a Covenant from you and
We lifted the Mount of Tür over your heads saying: "Take what We
have given you firmly and listen to Our Commandments," you
replied: "we have heard but we will not obey." So much was the
love of that calf in their hearts due to their unbelief. Tell
them: "If you are real believers, then why does your faith
prompt you to do such evil things?"
love for the calf was more than their love for Allah
Say O Muhammad: "If the Home of the
Hereafter is exclusively for you and not for the rest of
mankind, then wish for death if you are true in your claim!"
But they will never wish for death, because they are fully
aware of the consequences of what they have sent before them
for the Hereafter. And Allah knows the mentality of the
wrongdoers. You will find them the greediest of men for
life, even greedier than the mushrikďn; each one of them wishes
to be given a life of a thousand years; but the grant of such a
life will not save them from the punishment, for Allah is
watching whatever they do.
Jews' claim of exclusive right to inherit paradise is put to
Say O Muhammad: "Whoever is the enemy of Jibră'el (Gabriel)
should know that he revealed this Qur'an to your heart by
Allah’s command, which confirms previous scriptures, and is a
guidance and good news for the believers." Let them know
that whoever is an enemy to Allah, His angels, His Rasools,
Jibră'el (Gabriel) and Mika‘el (Michael); Allah is
an enemy to such unbelievers.
Their animosity for Jibră'el and other angels
We have sent down to you clear revelations:
no one can deny them except the transgressors. Has it not
been the case that every time they made a covenant a
group of them threw it aside? But the fact is that most
of them are faithless.
Whenever there came to them a Rasool from
Allah confirming their own Holy Book, a group from those to whom
the Holy book was given cast off the Book of Allah behind their
backs as if they knew nothing about it, and accepted what
the shaităns falsely attributed to the kingdom of Sulaimăn; not
that Sulaimăn was an unbeliever, it was the shaităns who were
unbelievers; they taught witchcraft to the people and that which
was revealed to the two angels, Harüt and Marüt in the city
of Babylon. Yet, these two angels never taught magic to anyone
without saying: "We have been sent to tempt you; do not renounce
your faith." In spite of this warning, those people kept
on learning from the angels, the magic of which could cause
discord between husband and wife; although they could harm none
with it except with Allah’s permission. They learned, indeed,
what harmed them and did not profit them; even though they knew
fully well that the buyers of magic would have no share in
the happiness of the Hereafter. Surely, they sold their
souls for a bad price, if they could understand it! If they
would have believed (accepted Islam) and kept themselves
away from evil, there would have been a better reward from
Allah, if they could understand it!
Their accusation against the Prophet Solomon (Sulaimăn)
Their learning of witchcraft
O Believers, do not say to our Rasool: "Ră'ina" (an
ambiguous word for: "Listen, may you become deaf" or "Our
shepherd" or in Judeo-Arabic language conveys the sense, "our
evil one.") But say "Unzurna" ("look upon" us "or pay
attention" to us) and listen to him carefully; and remember
that there is a painful punishment for the unbelievers. The
unbelievers among the People of the Book, and the mushrikďn,
would never wish that any good be sent down to you, O
Muhammad, from your Rabb, but Allah chooses for His special
Mercy whom He pleases, and Allah is the most Gracious.
Etiquettes to address the Prophet of Allah
We do not abrogate any of Our verses of
the Qur'an or cause it to be forgotten except that We
substitute it with something better or similar; don't you know
that Allah has full power over everything? Do you not know
that to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth,
and that besides Allah, you have no protector or helper!
Abrogation and/ or substitution of the verses of the Qur'an
Do you intend to ask questions from your
Rasool (Muhammad) as Musa (Moses) was questioned
before? But whoever barters belief for unbelief, has indeed lost
the direction of the Right Way.
Questioning the Prophet
Many among the people of the Book (Jews
and Christians) wish they could somehow turn you back to
unbelief, due to their selfish envy, after the truth has become
quite clear to them. Forgive them and bear with them until Allah
brings about His decision; rest assured that Allah has power
of Jews and Christians
Establish Salah and pay Zakah, and whatever
good you send ahead of you to the Hereafter for
yourselves, you shall find it with Allah; surely Allah is
watching all your actions.
Open-ended credit account for the Hereafter
They say: "None shall enter paradise except
the one who is a Jew or a Christian." These are their vain
desires. Say O Muhammad: "Let us have your proof if you
are right in your claim." Yea! Whoever submits himself
entirely to Allah and is good to others will be rewarded by his
Rabb; and will have nothing to fear or to regret.
Jews' and Christians' false claim to inherit paradise
SECTION: 14 The Jews say: "The Christians are
not on the right track," and the Christians say: "It is the Jews
who are not on the right track," yet both read their Holy Books
(Torah or Gospel). And those who have no knowledge (the
pagan Arabs) say like to what both of them say; so Allah
will judge between them in their dispute on the Day of
Religious prejudice of the Jews and the Christians
Who is more unjust than the one who prevents
people from the Masăjid (place of worship) of Allah ,
forbids the mention of His name therein, and strives to ruin
them ? It is not proper for such people to enter in them except
with His fear. For them there is disgrace in this world and
grievous punishment in the Hereafter.
not to prevent people from coming to the Masăjid
To Allah belong the East and the West;
whichever direction you turn your face there is the presence of
Allah. Surely Allah is All-Embracing and All-Knowing.
directions belong to Allah
They say: "Allah has taken to Himself a son;”
Allah is above such things! Rather, to Him belongs all that is
in the heavens and in the earth; all are obedient to Him.* He is
the Creator of the heavens and the earth ! When He decrees a
thing, He needs only to say, "Be," and there it becomes.
accusation against Allah of having a son
Those who have no knowledge ask: "Why does
Allah not speak to us face to face or send us a sign ?"
The same demand was made by those before them: they all have the
same mentality. We have already shown clear signs to those whose
faith is firm. What clearer sign could there be than
this Book? We have sent you (O Muhammad) with the
knowledge of the Truth and made you the bearer of good news and
warning; now, you will not be called upon to answer about the
actions of the companions of the blazing fire.
The Qur'an is the knowledge of truth
The Jews and the Christians will never be
pleased with you, until you follow their faith. O Muhammad,
tell them : "Allah’s guidance is the only guidance;" and if
after all the knowledge you have received, you yield to their
desires, there shall be none to protect you or help you from the
wrath of Allah. Those to whom We have given the book and
who read it as it ought to be read, they are the ones who
believe in it; as for those who reject it, they are for sure the
and Christians will never be pleased with you
O Children of Israel! Remember the special favor which I
bestowed upon you; that I exalted you above all other
nations. Guard yourselves against the Day when one soul
shall not avail another, no ransom shall be taken, no
intercession shall profit anyone, and no help shall be
Accountability on the Day of Judgment
Remember when Ibrăhďm (Abraham) was
tested by his Rabb with certain commands, he fulfilled them.
Allah said: "Surely, I will make you the leader of mankind."
"What about my offspring?" Asked Ibrăhďm. “My pledge," said
Allah, "will not apply to the evil doers."
Ibrăhďm was made the Leader of mankind
Remember when We made the House (the
Ka'bah) a center and sanctuary for mankind saying, "Take the
station of Ibrăhďm as a place of prayer;" We entrusted Ibrăhďm
and Isma‘il to cleanse Our House for those who walk around it,
who meditate in it, and who kneel and prostrate in prayers.
Ibrăhďm said: "My Rabb, make this (Makkah) a secure town
and provide its people with plenty of food from fruits, those of
them who believe in Allah and the Last Day." He answered, "As
for those who do not, I shall also provide for them in this
life, though in the Hereafter I shall drag them to the torture
of Hellfire and it is an evil destination indeed!"
Importance of the Ka‘bah
Prayer of Ibrăhďm for the city of Makkah
Ibrăhďm (Abraham) and Isma`il (Ishmael)
raised the foundations of the House and dedicated it by saying:
"Accept this from us, O Rabb, You are the one who hears all and
knows all. O Rabb, make us both Muslims (submissive to
You); and make our descendants a nation that will be Muslims
(submissive to You). Teach us our rites of worship and
forbear our shortcomings; surely, You are the Acceptor of
repentance, the Merciful. O Rabb, appoint from among them a
Rasool who shall recite to them Your Revelations and teach them
the Book and the Wisdom and sanctify them; surely, You are the
All-Mighty, the Wise."
Ibrăhďm and Isma‘il pray for the appointment of a Prophet from
the City of Makkah
SECTION: 16 Who but a foolish man would
renounce the faith of Ibrăhďm? We chose him in this worldly
life, while in the Hereafter, he will be among the
righteous. When his Rabb asked him: "Be a Muslim," he
answered: "I have become a Muslim to the Rabb of the
worlds." This was the legacy that Ibrăhďm left to his sons
and so did Ya‘qoob (Jacob), when he said: "O my sons!
Allah has chosen for you this Deen (way of life),
therefore, die not unless you are Muslims."
Islam: the religion of Ibrăhďm
Ibrăhďm's advice to his sons
Were you present when death approached
Ya'qoob (Jacob)? He asked his sons: "Who will you worship
after me?" They replied: "We will worship the same One God Who
is your Rabb and the Rabb of your forefathers Ibrăhďm, Isma`il
and Ishăq (Isaac), and to Him we all submit as
They were a people that have passed away.
They shall reap the fruits of what they did, and you shall for
what you do. You shall not be questioned about what they
did. Jews and Christians say: "Be Jews or
Christians, you shall then be rightly guided." O Muhammad,
say: "By no means! We follow the faith of Ibrăhďm, the
upright one; and he was not one of the mushrikďn."
Say: "We believe in Allah and that which is
revealed to us; and what was revealed to Ibrăhďm (Abraham),
Isma`il (Ishmael), Ishăq (Isaac), Ya'qoob (Jacob)
and their descendants, and that which was given to Musa (Moses),
Isa (Jesus) and other Prophets from their Rabb. We do not
discriminate any of them, and to Allah we have surrendered
ourselves (in Islam)." So, if they accept Islam like
you, they shall be rightly guided; if they reject it, they will
surely fall into dissension (divide into differing factions);
Allah will be your sufficient defender against them, and He
hears and knows everything.
order of Allah to believe in all the Prophets without
Baptism is from Allah; and who is better than
Allah in baptizing? Him do we worship.
Baptism is from Allah
Say, O Muhammad: "Would you dispute
with us concerning Allah, who is our Rabb and your Rabb as well?
We shall be accountable to Him for our deeds and you for yours;
to Him Alone we are devoted. Do you claim that Ibrăhďm (Abraham),
Isma`il (Ishmael), Ishăq (Isaac), Ya'qoob (Jacob)
and their descendants were all Jews or Christians? Are you more
knowledgeable than Allah?" Who is more wicked than the one who
hides the testimony received from Allah? Allah is not unaware of
what you do. That was a nation who has already passed away.
They are responsible for what they did and you are for what you
do, you shall not be questioned about their deeds.
Ibrăhďm and his sons were neither Jews nor Christians
The foolish will ask: "Why did they turn away from the Qiblah (the
direction in prayer) towards which they used to face?” O
Muhammad, say: “East and West belong to Allah; He guides
whomever He wishes to the Right Way.”
Q i b l a h (direction in prayers)
We have made you a moderate Ummah (nation)
so that you may testify against mankind and that your own Rasool
may testify against you. We decreed your former Qiblah only to
distinguish those who are the real followers of the Rasool from
those who would back away from the faith. It was indeed a
hard test except for those whom Allah has guided. Allah does not
want to make your faith fruitless. Allah is Compassionate and
Merciful to mankind.
order of Allah to change Qiblah
O Muhammad, many a time We noticed you
turning your face towards heaven; now We will make you turn
towards a Qiblah that will please you. Turn your face during
Salah towards the Sacred Mosque (Ka'bah); wherever you
are turn your face in that direction. The people of the Book
know this to be the truth from their Rabb. Allah is not unaware
of what they do. Even if you give every proof to the people
of the Book, they will not accept your Qiblah, nor will you
accept theirs. Neither of them (the Jews and Christians)
are the followers of each other’s Qiblah. If, after all the
knowledge you have been given, you yield to their desires then
surely you will be among the wrongdoers. Those to whom We
have given the Book (Jews and Christians) recognize this
fact as they recognize their own children. Nevertheless, a
group of them deliberately conceal the truth. The truth is from
your Rabb; therefore, you should never be among the
Ka'bah in Makkah was made the new Qiblah
Everyone has a direction towards which one turns, therefore,
emulate one another in good deeds. Wherever you are, Allah will
bring all of you together; Allah has power over all things.
From whatever place you come forth, turn your face during
Salah towards the Sacred Mosque; this is in fact a commandment
from your Rabb. Allah is not unaware of what you do. Again,
whatever place you come forth, turn your face during Salah
towards the Sacred Mosque; and wherever you are, face towards
it, so that people will not have any argument against you,
except those among them who are wrongdoers. Do not fear them;
fear Me, so that I may perfect My favors to you and that you may
be rightly guided, just as We bestowed Our favor upon
you when We sent among you a Rasool of your own who recites
to you Our revelations, sanctifies you, teaches you the Book and
wisdom, and teaches you that which you did not know.
Therefore, remember Me, and, I will remember you, be grateful to
Me and never deny Me.
The order to face towards Ka'bah as Qiblah during Salah
O’ You who believe! Seek My help with patience and prayer:
surely, Allah is with those who are patient. 2:
Prescription to seek Allah's help
Do not say about those who are slain in the
cause of Allah (martyrs), that they are dead. Nay, they
are alive, but you do not perceive it.
Martyrs are not dead
We shall surely test your steadfastness with
fear and famine, with loss of property, life and produce. Give
good news to those who endure with patience; who, when
afflicted with calamity, say: “We belong to Allah and to Him we
shall return." Such are the people on whom there are
blessings and Mercy from Allah; and they are the ones that are
will test the Believer's belief
Behold! Safă and Marwah (two hills in the
Sacred Mosque) are among the symbols of Allah. So anyone who
performs Hajj or Umrah (pilgrimage) to the House, there
is no blame if one goes around both of them; and anyone who does
good voluntarily should know that surely Allah knows the
and Marwah are the symbols of Allah
Those who conceal the clear proofs and the
guidance, after We have made it clear in the Book for mankind
will have Allah's curse and that of those who are entitled to
curse; except those who repent, reform and let the truth
be known; I will accept their repentance, for I am the
Receiver of Repentance, the Merciful. Surely those who are
unbelievers and die while they are unbelievers, they are the
ones on whom is the curse of Allah, the angels and all
mankind, they will live in it for ever; neither their
punishment shall be lightened nor shall they be given
respite. Your God is one God; there is no one worthy of
worship except Him, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
curse of Allah, the angels and all mankind is on those who
conceal the truth
SECTION: 20 Surely, in the creation of the
heavens and the earth, in the alternation of the night and the
day, in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the
profit of mankind, in the rain which Allah sends down from the
skies, with which He revives the earth after its death and
spreads in it all kinds of animals, in the change of the winds
and the clouds between the sky and the earth that are made
subservient, there are signs for rational people.
Signs from nature to recognize Allah
There are some who worship other deities
besides Allah (mushrikďn), they love them as they should
love Allah, whereas the believers are strong in love for Allah.
If those who are unjust could visualize (the Day of Judgement)
when they will see the chastisement, they would come to know for
sure that all powers belong to Allah and that Allah is stern in
retribution. On that Day those leaders who were being
followed, when faced with their punishment, will renounce those
who followed them and the bonds which united them will break
asunder. The followers will say: “If it could be possible
for us to live again, we would renounce them as they have
renounced us today.” Thus Allah will show them the fruits of
their deeds. They will sigh with regret, and shall not be able
to come out of the Hell fire.
mushrikďn will have severe punishment
The followers of misguided leaders will regret on the Day of
O Mankind! Eat of what is lawful and clean on the earth and do
not follow the footsteps of Shaităn, surely he is your open
enemy. He enjoins you to commit evil and indecency and to
say certain things against Allah about which you have no
Do not follow the footsteps of Shaităn
When it is said to them: “Follow what Allah
has revealed.” They reply: “Nay! We will follow what our
forefathers practiced.” Well! Even if their forefathers had no
sense at all and lacked guidance? The parable of those who
reject faith is like cattle which, call out to them as one may,
hear nothing but a shout and a cry since they are unable to
understand; they are deaf, dumb and blind, and understand
not profess the faith blindly
O believers! Eat the clean things which We
have provided you and give thanks to Allah, if you worship only
Him. He has forbidden you to eat dead meat, blood, the
flesh of swine, and that on which any name other than Allah has
been invoked; but if someone is compelled by absolute necessity,
intending neither to sin nor to transgress, they shall incur no
sin. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
Prohibited (Harăm) food
Surely those who conceal any part of the Book
which Allah has revealed and sell His revelations for a petty
price (material gain), shall swallow nothing but fire
into their bellies. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will
neither speak to them nor purify them and they shall have
painful punishment. These are the kind of people who barter
guidance for error and forgiveness for punishment. How stubborn
are they to encounter Hell fire! Their doom is because
Allah has revealed the Book with the truth; surely those who
seek causes of dispute in the Book (the Qur'an) are in
extreme schism (divergence).
who hide the truth for worldly gains swallow nothing but fire
Righteousness is not whether you turn your face towards East or
West; but righteousness is to believe in Allah, the Last Day,
the Angels, the Books and the Prophets, and to spend wealth out
of love for Him on relatives, orphans, helpless, needy
travellers, those who ask for and on the redemption of captives;
and to establish Salah (prayers), to pay Zakah (alms),
to fulfill promises when made, to be steadfast in distress, in
adversity, and at the time of war. These people are the truthful
and these are the pious.
Islamic definition of righteousness
O believers! Retaliation is prescribed for
you in the cases of murder: a free man for a free man, a slave
for a slave, and a female for a female. But if anyone is
pardoned by his aggrieved brother, then bloodwit (a ransom
for manslaughter) should be decided according to the common
law and payment should be made with gratitude. This is a
concession and a mercy from your Rabb. Now, whoever exceeds the
limits after this, shall have a painful punishment. O men
of understanding! There is security of life for you in the law
of retaliation, so that you may learn self-restraint. 
Islamic laws of retribution
The will is made obligatory before the death
of anyone of you who is leaving some property behind to bequest
it equitably to his parents and relatives. This is a duty
incumbent on the righteous. If anyone changes the bequest
after hearing it, the sin of it then is on those who make the
change. Allah hears and knows everything. But there is no
blame on the one who suspects an error or an injustice on the
part of the testator and brings about a settlement among the
parties. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
Commandment of Allah to execute a "will"
O believers! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed
for those before you so that you may learn self-restraint.
Fast the prescribed number of days; except if any of you is ill
or on a journey, then fast a similar number of days later. For
those who can not endure it for medical reasons, there is
a ransom: the feeding of one poor person for each missed day.
Whoever does more good than this voluntarily, it is better for
him. However, if you truly understand the rationale of
fasting, it is better for you to fast.
The obligation of fasting
It is the month of Ramadhăn in which the
Qur’an was revealed, a guidance for mankind with clear teachings
showing the Right Way and a criterion of truth and falsehood.
Therefore, anyone of you who witnesses that month should fast
therein, and whoever is ill or upon a journey shall fast a
similar number of days later on. Allah intends your well-being
and does not want to put you to hardship. He wants you to
complete the prescribed period so that you should glorify His
Greatness and render thanks to Him for giving you guidance.
revelation of the Qur'an and fasting in the month of Ramadhăn
When my servants question you about Me, tell
them that I am very close to them. I answer the prayer of every
suppliant when he calls Me; therefore, they should respond to Me
and put their trust in Me, so that they may be rightly
is very close to His devotees
It is made lawful for you to approach your
wives during the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you
and you for them. Allah knows that you were committing
dishonesty to your souls. So He has relented towards you and
pardoned you. Now, you may approach your wives and seek
what Allah has written for you. Eat and drink until the white
thread of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread of
night, then complete your fast till nightfall. Do not approach
your wives during I‘htikaf (retreat in the mosques in last
ten days of Ramadhăn). These are the limits set by Allah: do
not ever violate them. Thus Allah makes His revelations clear to
mankind so that they may guard themselves against evil.
Husband-wife relationship is permitted during the nights of the
Timings of fasting
Do not misappropriate one another’s property
unjustly, nor bribe the judges, in order to misappropriate a
part of other people’s property, sinfully and knowingly.
Bribing is a sin
SECTION: 24 They question you about the new
moon. Tell them: it is to determine the periods of time for the
benefit of mankind and for the Hajj (pilgrimage). It
is not righteous to enter your houses from the back doors
during Hajj times. Righteousness is to fear Allah. Enter
your houses through the proper doors and fear Allah so that you
moon is to determine time periods
Fight in the cause of Allah with those who
fight against you, but do not exceed the limits. Allah does not
like transgressors. Kill them wherever they confront you in
combat and drive them out of the places from which they have
driven you. Though killing is bad, creating mischief is
worse than killing. Do not fight them within the precincts of
the Sacred Mosque unless they attack you there; but if they
attack you, put them to the sword; that is the punishment for
such unbelievers. If they cease hostility, then surely
Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. Fight against them until
there is no more disorder and Allah’s supremacy is established.
If they desist, let there be no hostility except against the
to fight for a just cause
The Sacred month, in which fighting is
prohibited, is to be respected if the same is respected by
the enemy: sacred things too are subject to retaliation.
Therefore, if anyone transgresses a prohibition and
attacks you, retaliate with the same force. Fear Allah, and bear
in mind that Allah is with the righteous.
Retaliation is made lawful even in the sacred months
Give generously for the cause of Allah and do
not cast yourselves into destruction by your own hands. Be
charitable: Allah loves those who are charitable.
Commandment to give charity
Complete the Hajj (obligatory pilgrimage
to Makkah) and the Umrah (optional visit to Makkah)
for the sake of Allah. If you are prevented from proceeding
then send such offering for sacrifice as you can afford and do
not shave your head until the offerings have reached their
destination. But if any of you is ill or has an ailment in his
scalp which necessitates shaving, he must pay ransom
either by fasting or feeding the poor or offering a sacrifice.
If in peacetime anyone wants to take the advantage of performing
Umrah and Hajj' together, he should make an offering which he
can afford; but if he lack the means, let him fast three days
during the Hajj and seven days on his return making ten days in
all. This order is for the one whose household is not in the
precincts of the Sacred Mosque. Fear Allah and know that Allah
is strict in retribution.
and Umrah (pilgrimage to Makkah)
SECTION: 25 Hajj is in the well known months.
One who undertakes to perform it must abstain from husband-wife
relationship, obscene language, and wrangling during Hajj.
Whatever good you do, Allah knows it. Take necessary provisions
with you for the journey, and piety is the best provision of
all. Fear Me, O People endowed with understanding. There is
no blame on you if you seek the bounty of your Rabb during
this journey. When you return from Arafăt, (stop at
Muzdalifah and) praise Allah near Mash‘ar-al-Har’am. Praise
Him as He has guided you, for before this you were from the
people who had lost the Right Way. Then return from where
the others return and ask Allah’s forgiveness; surely Allah is
Forgiving, Merciful. When you have fulfilled your sacred
duties, praise Allah as you used to praise your forefathers or
with deeper reverence. There are some who say: “Our Rabb! Give
us abundance in this world.” Such people will not have any share
in the hereafter. But there are others who say: “Our Rabb!
Give us the good life, both in this world and in the Hereafter
and save us from the torment of the fire.” Such people
shall have their due share in both worlds according to
what they have earned, Allah is swift in settling all
accounts. Celebrate the praises of Allah during these
appointed days. If anyone hastens to leave Mina after two
days or stays there a day longer there is no blame on him
provided he spends these days in piety. Fear Allah and
remember that you will surely be gathered before Him.
Restrictions during Hajj
Performance of Hajj (pilgrimage)
Among the people there is one whose speech
fascinates you in this worldly life; he may even call upon Allah
to witness what is in his heart, yet he is your staunch
opponent. And when he leaves you, he directs his efforts
towards causing mischief in the land, destroying crops and
cattle. Allah, Whom he makes his witness, does not like
mischief. When it is said to him “Fear Allah,” arrogance
carries him off to sin. Hell will be the proper place for such a
person, which is indeed an evil refuge. And among people
there is one who would give away his life to seek the pleasure
of Allah. Allah is affectionate to His devotees.
Hypocrisy vs. True belief
O believers enter into Islam completely and
do not follow the footsteps of Shaităn, surely he is your
clear-cut enemy. If you falter after receiving the
clear-cut message, then keep in mind that Allah is Mighty,
Wise. Are they waiting for Allah to come down to them in
the shadow of clouds, along with the angels and make His
decision known? Ultimately, all matters will be presented to
Allah for decision.
Commandment of entering into Islam completely
Ask the Children of Israel how many clear-cut signs We have
given them. Anyone who substitutes the favor of Allah (changes
the revelations of Allah) after it has come to him,
should know that Allah is strict in retribution. The
life of this world is charming to those who are unbelievers and
they mock at those who believe, but they forget that
those who fear Allah will rank above them on the Day of
Resurrection; Allah gives sustenance without measure to whom He
Believers will rank above the disbelievers on the Day of
Mankind was one nation having one religion.
Later when people invented other religions, Allah
appointed Prophets as bearers of good news and warnings; and
revealed to them the Book with the True Guidance to settle the
matters of dispute between mankind. But the very people to whom
it was given, started disputes after the clear arguments had
come to them, because of rivalry between one another. Allah has
guided the believers by His will to the truth in those matters
in which they had differences. Allah guides whom He pleases
towards the Right Way.
Mankind was one nation having one religion
Do you think that you will enter Paradise
without any trials while you have known the examples of
those who passed away before you? They were afflicted with
suffering and adversity and were so violently shaken up that
even the Rasool and the believers with him cried out: “When will
Allah’s help come?” Then they were comforted with the words,
Be aware! Allah’s help is ever close.
way to Paradise passes through trials
They ask you what they should spend in
charity. Say: “Whatever you spend with a good heart, give it to
parents, relatives, orphans, the helpless, and travellers in
need. Whatever good you do, Allah is aware of it. Fighting
has been made obligatory for you, much to your dislike. It is
quite possible that something which you don’t like is good for
you and that something which you love is bad for you. Allah
knows, and you do not.
Charity and fighting (for just cause) is made obligatory
SECTION: 27 They ask you about war in the
Sacred Month. Tell them: "Fighting in this month is a heinous
offence; but to prevent from the path of Allah, to deny Him, to
prevent access and expel His worshippers from the Sacred Mosque
is a more severe crime, since mischief is worse than killing in
His sight. As for unbelievers: they will not cease
fighting until they succeed in turning you back from your
religion if they can; and if any of you turns back from his
religion and dies as an unbeliever, his deeds will become void
in this life and in the hereafter. He will be the inmate of the
hellfire, to live in there forever. Surely those who are
believers, and migrated and struggled in the path of Allah, they
can hope for the mercy of Allah; and Allah is Forgiving,
Fighting during the Sacred Months is a heinous sin
Punishment for 'mürtad' (the one who turns back from Islam)
They ask you about drinking and gambling.
Tell them: “There is great sin in both, although they may have
some benefit for men; but the sin is greater than the benefit.”
They ask you what they should spend; tell them: “Whatever you
can.” Thus Allah makes His revelations clear to you, so that you
may reflect upon this world and the hereafter. They ask you
about orphans. Tell them: "It is best to deal with them justly;
you may become copartners with them, after all they are your
brethren; Allah knows who means harm and also who means their
welfare. If Allah had wanted He could be hard on you in this
matter, surely Allah is Mighty, Wise."
Drinking and gambling are sinful (First Order of prohibition)
The commandment to deal with orphans justly
Do not marry mushrik women until they become
believers; a believing slave woman is better than a free mushrik
woman even though she may be more attractive to you. Likewise,
do not marry mushrik men until they become believers: a
believing slave is better than a free mushrik even though he may
be more pleasing to you. These mushrikďn invite you to the
hellfire while Allah invites you towards paradise and
forgiveness by His grace. He makes His revelations clear to
mankind so that they may take heed.
unlawful to marry a mushrik male or a female
SECTION: 28 They ask you about menstruation.
Tell them: "This is a discomfort; therefore, keep away from
women (do not have sexual intercourse) during their
menstrual periods and do not approach them until they are clean
again. When they have cleansed themselves then you may approach
them in the manner Allah has enjoined for you. Surely Allah
loves those who turn to Him in repentance and keep themselves
clean. Your wives are your tilth; so go to your tilth when
you like. Take care of your future and refrain from the
displeasure of Allah. Bear in mind that you shall meet Him in
the Hereafter, and give good news to the believers.
Prohibition of husband wife relationship during menstruation
Do not use Allah's name in your oaths as an
excuse to prevent you from dealing justly, guarding against evil
and making peace between people; Allah hears and knows
everything. Allah will not hold you accountable for what is
inadvertent in your oaths, but He will hold you accountable for
what you intended in your hearts; Allah is Forgiving,
not misuse oaths taken in the name of Allah
Those who renounce conjugal relationship
with their wives on oath have a limitation of four months.
If they reconcile and restore their relationship, surely
Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. But if they decide to divorce
them, they may do so, surely Allah hears and knows
limitation of four months is imposed on renouncing husband wife
Divorced women must keep themselves waiting
for three menstrual periods, it is not lawful for them to hide
what Allah has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah
and the Last Day. In such cases their husbands have a right to
take them back in that period if they desire reconciliation.
Women have rights similar to those exercised against them in an
equitable manner, although men have a status (degree of
responsibility) above them. Allah is Mighty, Wise.
Waiting period for remarriage is three menstruation periods
The pronouncement of revocable divorce is only allowed
twice: then she should be allowed to stay with honor or let go
with kindness after the third pronouncement. It is not
lawful for husbands to take anything back which they have given
them except when both parties fear that they may not be able to
follow the limits set by Allah; then if you fear that they both
will not be able to keep the limits of Allah, there is no blame
if, by mutual agreement the wife compensates the husband to
obtain divorce. These are the limits set by Allah; do not
transgress them, and those who transgress the limits of Allah
are the wrongdoers. So if a husband divorces his wife
three times, it is not lawful for him to remarry her until
after she has married another man and gotten divorced. In that
case there is no blame on either of them if they reunite in
marriage, provided they think that they can keep the limits of
Allah. Such are the limits of Allah which He makes clear to the
people of understanding.
Laws relating to divorce
When you divorce women and they have reached
the end of their waiting period (‘Iddat) either allow
them to stay with honor or let them go with kindness; but you
should not retain them to harm them or to take undue advantage;
if anyone does that he wrongs his own soul. Do not take Allah’s
revelations as a joke. Remember the favors of Allah upon you and
the fact that He sent down the Book and Wisdom for your
guidance. Fear Allah and know that Allah has knowledge of
Commandment of honorable and kind treatment to divorced women
When you have divorced women and they have reached the end of
their waiting period do not prevent them from marrying their
prospective husbands if they have come to an honorable
agreement. This is enjoined on everyone amongst you who believes
in Allah and the Last Day. This is more virtuous and chaste for
you; Allah knows what you do not know.
There is no restriction on divorcees for remarriage
The mothers shall breast-feed their offspring
for two whole years if the father wishes the breast-feeding to
be completed. The reasonable cost of their maintenance and
clothing will be the responsibility of the child’s father. No
one should be charged with more than they can afford. Neither a
mother should be made to suffer on account of her child nor a
father on account of his child. The father’s heirs are under the
same obligation. But if, with mutual agreement, they both decide
to wean the child, there is no blame on them. If you decide to
have a foster-mother for your offspring, there is no blame on
you provided you pay what you have promised to pay in an
honorable manner. Fear Allah and beware that Allah observes your
actions. As for those of you who die and leave widows
behind, let them abstain from marriage for four months
and ten days: when they have reached the end of this period,
there is no blame on you for what they do for themselves in a
decent manner. Allah is aware of what you do.
Commandment of breast feeding the babies
Widows are commanded to wait four months and ten days before
There is no blame on you if you make a
proposal of marriage during their waiting period openly
or keep it in your hearts. Allah knows that you will naturally
cherish them in your hearts; however, be careful not to make any
secret agreement, and if you wish to marry, speak to them in an
honorable manner. Do not confirm the marriage tie until the
prescribed waiting period expires. You should know that Allah is
aware of what is in your hearts, so fear Him. Bear in mind that
Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.
is no restriction on the remarriage of widows
SECTION: 31 There is no blame on you if you
divorce women before the marriage is consummated or the dowry is
settled. Pay them something anyhow, the rich man according to
his means and poor according to his, a reasonable amount in all
fairness. This is an obligation on the righteous people.
And if you divorce them before the marriage is consummated but
after the fixation of a dowry, give them half of their dowry
unless the woman wants to waive it or the man in whose hand is
the marriage tie agrees to forego (and pay the dowry in full).
To forego and give full dowry is closer to piety. Do not
forget to show kindness to each other. Surely Allah observes
Commandments relating to dowry in the case of a divorce
Guard your Salah (obligatory regular
prayers) especially the middle Salah and stand up with true
devotion to Allah. If you are in danger, pray on foot or
while riding; and when you are safe, remember Allah in the
manner that He has taught you which you did not know
Commandment for guarding the Salah (Prayers)
Those of you who die and leave widows should
bequeath for them a year’s maintenance without causing them to
leave their homes; but if they leave the residence on
their own there is no blame on you for what they chose for
themselves in a fair way. Allah is Mighty, Wise. Reasonable
provisions must also be made for divorced women. That is an
obligation upon those who fear Allah. That’s how Allah
makes His Revelations clear to you so that you may
Executing a "Last Will and Testament" is made obligatory
SECTION: 32 Have you reflected on the case of
thousands of people (Israelites) who fled their homes for
fear of death? Allah said to them: “Die” (gave them death).
Then He gave them life again. Surely Allah is bountiful to
mankind, but most of the people are ungrateful. O
believers, fight in the path of Allah without fear of death
and bear in mind that Allah hears and knows everything.
Fight in the path of Allah without the fear of death since there
is no escape from death
Who will loan to Allah a beautiful loan which
Allah will increase many fold? Allah alone can decrease and
increase wealth, and to Him you all shall return. Have you
not reflected on what the leaders of the children of Israel
demanded from one of their Prophets after the death of Musa (Moses)?
“Appoint for us a king,” they said, “and we will fight in the
cause of Allah.” The Prophet replied: “What if you refuse to
fight when you are ordered to do so?” They replied, “How could
we refuse to fight in the cause of Allah, while we along with
our children were driven out of our homes?” But when, on
their demand, they were ordered to fight, all refused except
a few of them. Allah knows the evildoers.
Israelites asked for a king to fight in the way of Allah
Their Prophet told them: “Allah has appointed
Talüt (Saul) to be your king.” They replied: “How can he
be our king when some of us are more deserving than him?
Besides, he is not rich.” The Prophet said: “Allah has chosen
him to rule over you and blessed him with knowledge and stature.
Allah grants kingship to whom He pleases and Allah has boundless
knowledge." Furthermore, their Prophet told them: “The sign
of his appointment as a king is that there will come to you the
chest in which there is tranquillity from your Rabb and the
residue of relics which the family of Musa (Moses) and
the family of Haroon (Aaron) left behind, and that chest
will be carried by the angels. Surely therein is a sign for you
if you are true believers.”
appointed Talüt to be their king
When Talüt marched forth with his army, he
announced: “Allah will test you at a certain river; anyone who
will drink from its water shall cease to be my soldier, and
those who will not drink to quench their thirst with its water
except a sip or so from the hollow of their hands shall fight on
my side.” They all drank from it, inspite of this warning,
except a few of them. When he and those who believed with him
crossed the river, they said: “We have no power left this day
against Jalüt (Goliath) and his warriors.” But the
believers, who knew they would meet Allah, replied: "It has
often happened that a small group, by the grace of Allah, has
vanquished a mighty army. Allah is with those who endure with
Majority of Israelites' failed in the test of their belief
Victory is not dependent on numbers
When they advanced to face Jalüt (Goliath)
and his warriors, they prayed: “Our Rabb! Fill our hearts with
steadfastness, make our steps firm, and help us (give us
victory) against the unbelievers." By Allah’s will they
put the unbelievers to flight, and Dawőőd (David) killed
Jalüt. Allah gave Dawőőd the kingdom and wisdom and taught him
what else He pleased. If Allah had not been repelling one set of
people by the might of others, there would indeed be disorder on
earth, but Allah is Gracious to all the worlds. These are
the revelations of Allah; We recite them to you in truth. Surely
you, O Muhammad, are one of Our Rasools.
Believer's prayer for a victory
Allah reaffirmed the Prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh)
These are the Rasools (which We have sent
for the guidance of mankind). We have exalted some above
others. To some Allah spoke directly; others He raised high in
ranks; to Isa (Jesus) the son of Maryam (Mary) We
gave clear Signs and supported him with the Holy Spirit. If
Allah wanted, the people who received the clear signs would not
have fought against each other; but they disputed, as a result,
there were some who believed while others rejected. Yet If Allah
wanted, they would not have fought each other; but Allah does
what He intends.
O believers! Spend out of the sustenance which We have provided
for you before the arrival of that Day when there will be no
bargaining, friendship or intercession. It is the unbelievers
who are wrongdoers.
Spending in charity
Allah! There is no god but Him: the Living,
the Eternal. He neither slumbers nor sleeps. To Him belongs all
that is in the Heavens and the Earth. Who can intercede with Him
without His permission? He knows what is before them and what is
behind them. They cannot gain access to any thing out of His
knowledge except what He pleases. His throne is more vast than
the heavens and the earth, and guarding of these both does not
fatigue Him. He is the Exalted, the Supreme.
Allah's Attributes "Ayat-ul-Kursi"
There is no compulsion in religion. True
guidance has been made clearly distinct from error. Therefore,
whoever renounces ‘Tăghüt’ (forces of Shaităn) and
believes in Allah has grasped the firm hand-hold that will never
break. Allah, Whose hand-hold you have grasped, hears all
and knows all. Allah is the Wali (Protector) of
those who believe, He brings them out of the depth of darkness
and leads them into the light. As for the unbelievers, whose
wali (protector) is Tăghüt (forces of Shaităn), he
takes them out of the light and leads them into the depths of
darkness. As a result they will become the companions of the
Hell fire and shall live therein forever.
is no compulsion in religion
Wali of Allah vs. Wali of Shaităn
Have you ever reflected upon the one (Namrud), to whom
Allah had given a kingdom, who argued with Ibrăhďm (Abraham)
about his Rabb. When Ibrăhďm said: “My Rabb is He Who has power
to give life and to cause death.” He replied: “I too have the
power to give life and to cause death.” Ibrăhďm said: “Well,
Allah causes the sun to rise from the east; just make it rise
from the west.” Thus the unbeliever was confounded; Allah does
not guide the evildoers.
Confrontation of Ibrăhďm and Namrud
Or take another example of the one (Prophet
Ezra) who passed by a town which had fallen down upon its
roofs. He exclaimed: “How can Allah bring this dead township
back to life?” Thereupon Allah caused him to die, and after one
hundred years brought him back to life. Allah asked: “How long
did you remain here?” Ezra replied: “Perhaps a day
or part of a day.” Allah said: “Nay! You have remained here for
one hundred years: now just have a look at your food and drink;
they are not rotten; and then look at your donkey and see
that his very bones have decayed. We have done this to make
you a Sign for mankind. Look at the bones of your donkey how We
bring them together then clothe them with flesh and bring him
back to life! When this all was shown clearly to him he
said: “Now I know that Allah has power over everything."
Example of bringing dead to life
Yet another example is when Ibrăhďm
said: “My Rabb! Show me how you give life to the dead." He
replied: “Have you no faith in this?” Ibrăhďm humbly submitted:
“Yes! But I ask this to reassure my heart.” Allah said: “Take
four birds; train them to follow your direction, cut their
bodies into pieces and scatter those pieces on hilltops, then
call them back; Allah will bring them back to life and
they will come to you right away. Thus you will know that Allah
is All-powerful and Wise."
Ibrăhďm's question of life after death
The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah
is that of a grain that sprouts into seven ears, each bearing
one hundred grains. Allah gives manifold increase to whom He
wishes. Allah has boundless knowledge. Those who spend
their wealth in the cause of Allah and do not follow their
charity with reminders of their generosity or injure the feeling
of the recipient, shall get their reward from their Rabb; they
shall have nothing to fear or to regret. Kind words and
forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury. Allah is
The parable of spending in Charity
O believers! Do not make your charity
worthless by reminders of your generosity or by injury to the
recipients feelings, like those who spend their wealth to be
seen by people and believe neither in Allah nor in the Last Day.
Their parable is like a hard barren rock covered with a thin
layer of soil; a heavy rain falls, leaving it just a bare stone.
Such people will not gain any reward that they thought they had
earned. Allah does not guide the unbelievers.
makes charity worthless
The example of those who spend their wealth
to seek the pleasure of Allah and to strengthen their souls is
like a garden on a high and fertile ground: when heavy rain
falls on it, it yields up twice its normal produce; and if no
rain falls, even a light moisture is sufficient. Whatever you do
is in the sight of Allah. Would any one of you like that
his garden, which is full of palm trees, grape vines, and all
kinds of fruits and watered by running streams, be blasted and
consumed by a fiery whirlwind at the time when he has become too
old and his children are too feeble to earn anything? Thus Allah
makes His revelations clear to you so that you may ponder over
Charity vs. showing off
SECTION: 37 O believers, spend in Allah’s Way
the best portion of the wealth you have lawfully earned and that
which We have produced for you from the earth, and do not pick
out for charity those worthless things that you yourselves would
not accept but with closed eyes. Bear in mind that Allah is
Self-Sufficient, Praiseworthy. Shaităn threatens you with
poverty and prompts you to commit what is indecent, while Allah
promises you His forgiveness and bounties, and Allah has
boundless knowledge. He grants wisdom to whom He pleases;
and whoever is granted wisdom is indeed given a great wealth,
yet none except people of understanding learn a lesson from
the best portion of your wealth
Allah's promise vs. Shaităn's promise
Whatever you spend in charity or whatever vow
you make, surely Allah knows it. The wrongdoers shall have no
helpers. To give charity in public is good, but to give to
the poor in private is better and will remove from you some of
your sins. Allah is aware of your actions. O Prophet,
you are not responsible for their guidance, it is Allah Who
guides whom He pleases. Whatever wealth you spend in charity, it
is to your own advantage; provided you give to seek the pleasure
of Allah. Whatever wealth you spend for the sake of Allah, will
be paid back to you in full, and you will not be wronged.
Charity is for those needy people who are engaged so much in the
cause of Allah that they cannot move about in the land to earn
their livelihood: the ignorant think that they are wealthy on
account of their modest behavior. You can recognize them by
their look because they do not make insistent demands on people.
Whatever you spend on them, surely Allah knows it.
Giving charity in public is good but giving in private is better
Who is eligible for receiving charity
Those who spend their wealth in charity by night and day,
secretly and openly, they will have their reward from their Rabb.
They shall have nothing to fear or to regret.
Reward for giving charity
Those who live on usury will not rise up
before Allah except like those who are driven to madness by the
touch of Shaităn. That is because they claim: “Trading is no
different than usury, but Allah has made trading lawful and
usury unlawful. He who has received the admonition from his Rabb
and has mended his way may keep his previous gains; Allah will
be his judge. Those who turn back (repeat this crime),
they shall be the inmates of hellfire wherein they will live
forever. Allah has laid His curse on usury and blessed
charity to prosper. Allah does not love any ungrateful
Prohibition of usury
Those who believe and do good deeds,
establish regular prayers, and give regular charity will have
their reward with their Rabb. They will have nothing to fear or
to regret. O You who believe! Fear Allah and waive what is
still due to you from usury if you are indeed believers; 
or war shall be declared against you by Allah and His Rasool. If
you repent, you may retain your principal, causing no loss to
debtor and suffering no loss. If the debtor is in a
difficulty, grant him time till it is easy for him to repay; but
if you waive the sum by way of charity it will be better for
you, if you understand it. Fear the Day when you shall all
return to Allah; when every one shall be paid in full what they
have earned and none shall be dealt with unjustly.
Taking usury is like declaring war against Allah and His Rasool
SECTION: 39 O believers! When you deal with
each other in lending for a fixed period of time, put it in
writing. Let a scribe write it down with justice between the
parties. The scribe, who is given the gift of literacy by Allah,
should not refuse to write; he is under obligation to write. Let
him who incurs the liability (debtor) dictate, fearing
Allah his Rabb and not diminishing anything from the settlement.
If the borrower is mentally unsound or weak or is unable to
dictate himself, let the guardian of his interests dictate for
him with justice. Let two witnesses from among you bear witness
to all such documents, if two men cannot be found, then one man
and two women of your choice should bear witness, so that if one
of the women forgets anything the other may remind her. The
witnesses must not refuse when they are called upon to do so.
You must not be averse to writing (your contract) for a
future period, whether it is a small matter or big. This action
is more just for you in the sight of Allah, because it
facilitates the establishment of evidence and is the best way to
remove all doubts; but if it is a common commercial transaction
concluded on the spot among yourselves, there is no blame on you
if you do not put it in writing. You should have witnesses when
you make commercial transactions. Let no harm be done to the
scribe or witnesses; and if you do so, you shall be guilty of
transgression. Fear Allah; it is Allah that teaches you and
Allah has knowledge of everything.
Commandment of writing down all business dealings - loans, debts
and buying on credit
Witnesses are required in all major business transactions
If you are on a journey and cannot find a
scribe to write down the transaction, then transact your
business by taking possession of a pledge. If one of you entrust
another with a pledge, let the trustee deliver the pledged
property to its owner, and let him fear Allah, his Rabb. Do not
conceal testimony, and whoever conceals it, his heart is surely
sinful. Allah is aware of all your actions.
writing is not possible, take a security deposit - pledge /
To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth.
Whether you reveal what is in your minds or conceal it, Allah
will call you to account for it. He, however, has full authority
to pardon or punish anyone He pleases. Allah has complete power
will call all actions to account
The Rasool has believed in the Guidance which
has been revealed to him from his Rabb and so do the Believers.
They all believe in Allah, His angels, His books and His Rasools.
They say: "We do not discriminate against anyone of His
Rasools." And they say: “We hear and we obey. Grant us Your
forgiveness, O Rabb; to You we shall all return.” Allah
does not burden any human being with more than he can bear.
Everyone will enjoy the credit of his deeds and suffer the
debits of his evil-doings. The believers say: “Our
Rabb! Do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake. Our Rabb!
Do not place on us a burden as You placed on those before us.
Our Rabb! Lay not on us the kind of burden that we have no
strength to bear. Pardon us, Forgive us, Have mercy on us. You
are our Protector, help us against the unbelievers.”
belief of Prophets and Muslims
A believer's supplication
Major Issues, Divine
Law and Guidance:
• Claim of the Qur'an: "This is the Book
which contains no doubt."
• Creation of Adam, man's nature, and his destiny.
• The Children of Israel and the People of the Book (Jews and
• Israelites' sin of worshipping the statue of a calf.
• Punishment of Israelites violation of Sabbath.
• Nature of Jews' belief.
• Allah orders not to prevent the people from coming to Masăjid.
• Ibrăhďm and his sons were neither Jews nor Christians but were
• Abraham (Ibrăhďm), Ishmael (Isma`il), and their building of
• Change of Qiblah (direction in prayers) towards Ka'bah in
• Allah orders not to profess any faith blindly.
• The moon is created to determine the time periods i.e. months
• Hypocrisy vs. True faith.
• Ayat-ul-Kursi (Verse of the Throne of Allah).
• Allah orders the believers to enter into Islam completely.
• Punishment of a murtad (a Muslim who becomes a Non-Muslim).
• It is unlawful to marry a mushrik.
• Victory is not by numbers but by Allah's help.
• Confrontation of Ibrăhďm and Namrüd (the king of his time).
• What makes charity worthless.
• Taking usury is like declaring war against Allah and his
• All business dealings relating to deferred payments must be in
• Retaliation against oppression.
• Non compulsion in religion.
• Divine Laws are promulgated about the following categories:
• Believers supplication to Allah.
Guidance is also provided concerning social,
cultural, economic, political and legal issues through
addressing the Jews who were acquainted with the Unity of
Allah,Prophethood, Revelation, the Hereafter and angels. The
Jews professed to believe in the law which was revealed by Allah
to their Prophet Moses (pbuh), and in principle, their religion
was the same (Islam) that was being taught by the Prophet
Muhammad ( pbuh). Although they were originally Muslims, they
had swerved from the real Islam and made innovations and
alterations to their religion. As a result they had fallen
victims to hair splitting and sectarianism, so much so that they
had even given up their original name “Muslim” and adopted the
name “Jew” instead, and made religion the monopoly of the
children of Israel. This was their religious condition when the
Prophet went to Al-Madinah and invited the Jews to the True
Religion. More than one third of this Sürah addresses the
Children of Israel. A critical review of their history, moral
degeneration and religious perversions has been made, to draw
clear lines of demarcation between the essentials and
nonessentials of the True Religion. The Jews are warned not to
mix up the Truth with Falsehood.
During this period, a new type of Muslims called "Munăfiqďn"
(hypocrites), had emerged. There were some who had entered the
fold of Islam merely to harm it from within. There were others
who were surrounded by Muslims, and had become “Muslims” to
safeguard their worldly interests. They, therefore, continued to
have relations with the enemies so that if the latter became
successful, their interests would remain secure. Allah has,
therefore, briefly pointed out the characteristics of the
hypocrites in this Sürah. Later on when their mischievous deeds
became manifest, detailed instructions were given in Sürah Al-Taubah.
This Sürah is an invitation towards the Divine Guidance. All of
its stories, examples and incidents revolve round this central
theme. This Sürah particularly addresses the Jews and cites many
events from their history to admonish and advise them that
accepting the Guidance revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
is to their own advantage. They should, therefore, be the first
to accept it because this Message is basically the same as that
revealed to the Prophet Musa (Moses) pbuh.